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Rakesh Belwal

Bio: Rakesh Belwal is an academic researcher from Sohar University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Corruption & Private sector. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 42 publications receiving 929 citations. Previous affiliations of Rakesh Belwal include University of Queensland & Addis Ababa University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the problem areas and developmental issues attached to women's entrepreneurship related to small medium enterprises (SMEs) particularly in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, and devise certain stratagems for ensuring women's entrepreneurial growth and SMEs advancement in the region.
Abstract: Purpose – This paper attempts to identify the problem areas and developmental issues attached to women's entrepreneurship related to small medium enterprises (SMEs) particularly in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. It also attempts to devise certain stratagems for ensuring women's entrepreneurial growth and SMEs' advancement in the region.Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase attempted to identify the problem areas in terms of nature, needs, desire, motivations and problems of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia by an extensive review of the existing literature. The second phase incorporated a ground survey and focused interviews with groups of female entrepreneurs for assessing the factors related to entrepreneurship. The data pertaining to these issues were collected using 90 personally administered “schedules” in eight areas in Addis Ababa on the basis of stratified sampling. Basic level statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical packag...

188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the extent of corruption in India, Ethiopia and Ethiopia and survey citizen perception of how e-governance could fight corruption, and further ask respondents on how e•governance can cut corruption.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of corruption in India, Fiji and Ethiopia and survey citizen perception of how e‐governance could fight corruption. The main objective is to investigate and explore the potential of e‐governance applications in three countries representing three different regions of Asia, Africa, and Oceania.Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted over 918 citizens in India, Ethiopia and Fiji using convenience random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used. The main emphasis of the survey was on citizen perception about corruption and poor service. It further asked respondents on how e‐governance can cut corruption.Findings – Benefits of e‐governance in developing countries are the same as those in developed countries but there are many potential benefits that remain unreaped by developing countries as a consequence of their unlimited use of e‐governance. Based on these assertions, the researchers tried to evaluate and assess the potential of ...

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the results of a survey of 400 respondents in Ethiopia about factors generating corruption and the potential of e-governance to mitigate corruption and suggest that e-Governance can help not only in weeding out corruption but also in the establishment of sounder government citizen relationships in Ethiopia.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of a survey of 400 respondents in Ethiopia about factors generating corruption and the potential of e-Governance to mitigate corruption It is suggested that e-Governance can help not only in weeding out corruption but also in the establishment of sounder government citizen relationships in Ethiopia While e-Governance cannot cure all the structural factors that breed corruption in the society, strategic implementation of e-Governance can help improve the critical variable in combating corruption-government citizen relationships It is argued that while e-Governance initiatives can make important contributions to improving public services they can best do so by helping improve overall relationships between governments and citizens

65 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the contribution of micro-finance to the economic improvement of women small-scale entrepreneurs in Addis Ababa, by using secondary data and a quantitative analysis based on questionnaires and interviews.
Abstract: Women entrepreneurs account for a sizable majority of small-scale entrepreneurs in Africa. A minor change in their capitalization could assure their participation in diverse productive activities and has a large impact on their lives and families, as well as on the economy. While their access to credit is impeded profoundly because of the regulatory constraints imposed by formal financial institutions, on one hand, the informal sector interest rates as high as 300 per cent are literally untenable, on the other. The paper investigates the contribution of microfinance to the economic improvement of women small-scale entrepreneurs in Addis Ababa. The research assesses the impact of credit and saving services on the economic improvement of women small-scale entrepreneurs by using secondary data and a quantitative analysis based on questionnaires and interviews. The study probes financial facets such as income, savings, credit, financial services, family obligations and access to education. It concludes that women entrepreneurs who obtain microfinance face a number of problems. The study exposes the overall environment constraining women entrepreneurs on financial fronts and suggests some measures of relief to ameliorate the situation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

58 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Montanye as discussed by the authors defined entrepreneurship as "the process of assembling necessary factors of production consisting of human, physical, and information resources and doing so in an efficient manner" and entrepreneurs as those who put people together in particular ways and combine them with physical capital and ideas to create a new product or to produce an existing.
Abstract: Introduction Entrepreneurship has its origin from the French word entreprendre that means "to undertake" Burch (1986). The word reflects a willingness to do something, and usually the person who exhibits the willingness is known as an entrepreneur. There are many definitions for entrepreneurship but, simply, entrepreneurship is the process of identifying new opportunities and transferring them into marketable ideas, products and services. Lazear (2005: 649) defines entrepreneurship as "the process of assembling necessary factors of production consisting of human, physical, and information resources and doing so in an efficient manner" and entrepreneurs as those who "put people together in particular ways and combine them with physical capital and ideas to create a new product or to produce an existing." Entrepreneurship is considered as a factor of production, linked to innovation and risk taking, where entrepreneurial compensations are tied to uncertainty and profits (Montanye, 2006). Several studies debate the definition of entrepreneurship (Howorth, Tempest, & Coupland, 2005), albeit entrepreneurship is all-pervasive as it occurs in every firm, enterprise, and sector (Collins, Smith & Hannon, 2005). Likewise, entrepreneurs are found in every country and in different enterprises therein. According to Montanye (2006), entrepreneurship enables talented individuals to realize rewards and enable them to live better than others. The drive to entrepreneurship is innate to human beings, as they compete in life for profit, similar to what they do in business (Montanye, 2006). At the micro level, while entrepreneurship benefits individuals or teams, at the macro level it creates and catalyzes employment and economic growth (World Bank, 2009). However, "To find a single appropriate and ubiquitous definition of entrepreneurship is a challenging problem for academic researchers and students of entrepreneurship" (Louw, van Eeden, Bosch, & Venter, 2003: 7). In developing countries, small and medium enterprises are important for the economic growth and development. Entrepreneurship supports the process of economic development, fosters economic growth, job creation, and reduces rural unemployment and migration. Women, all over the world, have demonstrated success in handling small scale projects. In addition to meeting the needs of some large-scale industries and boosting innovation, the small-scale enterprises help the commercial and industrial community and also the development of women (OCCI, 2006). Recently, the Sultanate of Oman has devised certain strategies to diversify the economic activities to sectors other than oil, on which the economy was heavily dependent earlier. The government encourages the private sector and focuses on the human resources with a special drive towards 'Omanisation', inducing Omani nationals to support and create enterprises (McElwee and Al Riyami, 2003; Al-Mansory and Nagee, 2003). To boost entrepreneurship and the Small and Medium Enterprises, the government of Oman has taken many initiatives such as the Sanad Program, Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KON), and projects under the Oman Development Bank and the Ministry of Social Development. The private sector has also created similar programs such as Youth Projects Development Scheme, Intilaqa Program and Grofin Oman, to boost entrepreneurship. Furthermore, private sector banks such as HSBC Bank, Middle East Limited, Bank Muscat, Sohar Bank, and National Bank of Oman also support the small and medium enterprises. Small and medium sectors such as sewing, cosmetics, design and other sectors that do not require large amounts of capital have attracted largely Omani women (Nadwa, 2009). However, there are certain barriers that challenge women entrepreneurs. Many studies have been conducted on women entrepreneurs since the beginning of the 1980s, but more research is needed to understand various aspects of the women entrepreneurship. …

56 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method to solve the problem of "labeling" for the purpose of improving the quality of the labels of the products of a company's products.
Abstract: 第1章 GEM調査の概要(分析の枠組み;調査方法;起業活動の定義;起業活動率;起業活動と経済成長;起業の計画と失敗) 第2章 起業家と事業特性(起業家の背景;起業家の能力;事業特性;起業家教育) 第3章 起業の環境(社会的資源;起業家に対する評価;経済危機の影響;起業活動の投資環境) 第4章 専門家調査(資金調達;政府の方針;支援プログラム;教育システム;技術移転;コマーシャル・サービス;起業文化;事業機会;経営能力;起業家に対する評価;女性への支援;急成長への注目;イノベーションへの関心;調査結果) 第5章 政策への提

1,062 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a framework based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to evaluate the design of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated.
Abstract: Purpose – Facing the multiplication of entrepreneurship education programmes (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated, there is a need to develop a common framework to evaluate the design of those programmes. The purpose of this article is to propose such a framework, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach – TPB is a relevant tool to model the development of entrepreneurial intention through pedagogical processes. The independent variables are the characteristics of the EEP and the dependent variables are the antecedents of entrepreneurial behaviour. To illustrate and test the relevance of the evaluation methodology, a pilot study is conducted. Findings – Data are consistent and reliable, considering the small scale of this experiment. The EEP assessed had a strong measurable impact on the entrepreneurial intention of the students, while it had a positive, but not very significant, impact on their perceived behavioural control. Research implications/limitations – This is a first step of an ambitious research programme aiming at producing theory-grounded knowledge. Reproduction of the experiment will allow researchers to test how specific characteristics of an EEP influence its impact and how the impact differs across several cohorts of students. Those comparisons will serve to improve a priori the design of EEP. Originality/value – The new methodology is built on a robust theoretical framework and based on validated measurement tools. Its originality is about a relative – longitudinal – measure of impact over time and a particular use of the theory of planned behaviour which is seen as an assessment framework.

873 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book discusses security and Vulnerability in Livelihood Systems, as well as tracking and Tackling Food Vulnerability, in the Sahel region.
Abstract: List of Diagrams - List of Graphs - List of Maps - List of Tables - List of Abbreviations - Glossary of Foreign Terms - Introduction - Security and Vulnerability in Livelihood Systems - Coping and Adapting - Monitoring How People Feed Themselves - Drought, Food Insecurity and Early Warning in Mali - Livelihood Safety Nets: the Inner Niger Delta in the Sahel - Livelihood Systems - Production Entitlements - Exchange Entitlements - Coping and Adaptive Entitlements - Tracking and Tackling Food Vulnerability - References - Index

420 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic literature review based on rigorous criteria is presented to investigate the role of women entrepreneurs in emerging economies and the relevance of immigrant female entrepreneurs in developed countries in entrepreneurship.

371 citations

01 Jan 1961
TL;DR: The authors argued that cultural customs and motivations, especially the motivation for achievement, are the major catalysts of economic growth and proposed a plan to accelerate economic growth in developing countries by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries.
Abstract: Examines the motivation for achievement as a psychological factor that shapes economic development. Refuting arguments based on race, climate, or population growth, the book instead argues for cultural customs and motivations - especially the motivation for achievement - as the major catalysts of economic growth. Considering the Protestant Reformation, the rise of capitalism, parents' influences on sons, and folklore and children's stories as shaping cultural motivations for achievement, the book hypothesizes that a high level of achievement motivation precedes economic growth. This is supported through qualitative analysis of the achievement motive, as well as of other psychological factors - including entrepreneurial behavior and characteristics, and available sources of achievement in past and present highly achieving societies. It is the achievement motive - and not merely the profit motive or the desire for material gain - that has advanced societies economically. Consequently, individuals are not merely products of their environment, as many social scientists have asserted, but also creators of the environment, as they manipulate it in various ways in the search for achievement. Finally, a plan is hypothesized to accelerate economic growth in developing countries, by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries. The conclusion is not just that motivations shape economic progress, but that current influences on future people's motivations and values will determine economic growth in the long run. Thus, it is most beneficial for a society to concentrate its resources on creating an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and a strong ideological base for achievement. (CJC)

359 citations