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Ralph D. Nine

Bio: Ralph D. Nine is an academic researcher from West Virginia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Truck & Diesel fuel. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 24 publications receiving 657 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled.
Abstract: Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hybrid-electric transit buses offer potential benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity, including reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and the utilization of smaller buses as discussed by the authors, and they can be used to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
Abstract: Hybrid-electric transit buses offer potential benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity, including reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and the utilization of smaller ...

66 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Oct 2004
TL;DR: A fleet of six International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF).
Abstract: A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

45 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: This article presented a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3-22 Tg/yr for BC and 17-77 Tg /yr for OC.
Abstract: [1] We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous ‘‘bottom-up’’ inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly dependent on combustion practice, we consider combinations of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls and their prevalence on a regional basis. Central estimates of global annual emissions are 8.0 Tg for black carbon and 33.9 Tg for organic carbon. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 25–35%. The present inventory is based on 1996 fuel-use data, updating previous estimates that have relied on consumption data from 1984. An offset between decreased emission factors and increased energy use since the base year of the previous inventory prevents the difference between this work and previous inventories from being greater. The contributions of fossil fuel, biofuel, and open burning are estimated as 38%, 20%, and 42%, respectively, for BC, and 7%, 19%, and 74%, respectively, for OC. We present a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use. The total uncertainties are about a factor of 2, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3–22 Tg/yr for BC and 17–77 Tg/yr for OC. Low-technology combustion contributes greatly to both the emissions and the uncertainties. Advances in emission characterization for small residential, industrial, and mobile sources and topdown analysis combining field measurements and transport modeling with iterative inventory development will be required to reduce the uncertainties further. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0322 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Constituent sources and sinks; 0345 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution—urban and regional (0305); 0360 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere—composition and chemistry; KEYWORDS: emission, black carbon, organic carbon, fossil fuel, biofuel, biomass burning

2,180 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review covers the process by which biodiesel is prepared, the types of catalysts that may be used for the production of biodiesel, the influence of free fatty acids on biodiesel production, the use of different monohydric alcohols in the preparation of biod diesel, the effects of blending biodiesel with other fuels on fuel properties, alternative uses for biod Diesel, and value-added uses of glycerol.
Abstract: Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel has many important technical advantages over petrodiesel, such as inherent lubricity, low toxicity, derivation from a renewable and domestic feedstock, superior flash point and biodegradability, negligible sulfur content, and lower exhaust emissions. Important disadvantages of biodiesel include high feedstock cost, inferior storage and oxidative stability, lower volumetric energy content, inferior low-temperature operability, and in some cases, higher NO x exhaust emissions. This review covers the process by which biodiesel is prepared, the types of catalysts that may be used for the production of biodiesel, the influence of free fatty acids on biodiesel production, the use of different monohydric alcohols in the preparation of biodiesel, the influence of biodiesel composition on fuel properties, the influence of blending biodiesel with other fuels on fuel properties, alternative uses for biodiesel, and value-added uses of glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. A particular emphasis is placed on alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Lastly, future challenges and outlook for biodiesel are discussed.

766 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of emission factors found in emission models used to produce emission inventories.

433 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: PReVIously ClAssIfIed by IARC As “CARCInogenIC to humAns (gRoup 1)” And wAs deVeloped by sIx sepARAte woRkIng gRoups: phARmACeutICAls; bIologICAl Agents; ARsenIC, metAls, fIbRes, And dusts; RAdIAtIon; peRsonAl
Abstract: pReVIously ClAssIfIed by IARC As “CARCInogenIC to humAns (gRoup 1)” And wAs deVeloped by sIx sepARAte woRkIng gRoups: phARmACeutICAls; bIologICAl Agents; ARsenIC, metAls, fIbRes, And dusts; RAdIAtIon; peRsonAl hAbIts And IndooR CombustIons; ChemICAl Agents And RelAted oCCupAtIons. thIs Volume 100f CoVeRs ChemICAl Agents And RelAted oCCupAtIons, speCIfICAlly 4-AmInobIphenyl, benzIdIne, dyes metAbolIzed to benzIdIne, 4,4’-methylenebIs(2-ChloRoAnIlIne), 2-nAphthylAmIne, oRtho-toluIdIne, AuRAmIne And AuRAmIne pRoduCtIon, mAgentA And mAgentA pRoduCtIon, benzo[A]pyRene, CoAl gAsIfICAtIon, oCCupAtIonAl exposuRes duRIng CoAl-tAR dIstIllAtIon, CoAl-tAR pItCh, Coke pRoduCtIon, untReAted oR mIldly tReAted mIneRAl oIls, shAle oIls, soot, As found In oCCupAtIonAl exposuRe of ChImney-sweeps, oCCupAtIonAl exposuRes duRIng AlumInIum pRoduCtIon, AflAtoxIns, benzene, bIs(ChloRomethyl)etheR And ChloRomethyl methyl etheR, 1,3-butAdIene, 2,3,7,8-tetRAChloRodIbenzo-pARA-dIoxIn, 2,3,4,7,8-pentAChloRodIbenzofuRAn, And 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentAChloRobIphenyl, ethylene oxIde, foRmAldehyde, sulfuR mustARd, VInyl ChloRIde, IsopRopyl AlCohol mAnufACtuRe by the stRong-ACId pRoCess, mIsts fRom stRong InoRgAnIC ACIds, oCCupAtIonAl exposuRes duRIng IRon And steel foundIng, oCCupAtIonAl exposuRe As A pAInteR, oCCupAtIonAl exposuRes In the RubbeR mAnufACtuRIng IndustRy. beCAuse the sCope of Volume 100 Is so bRoAd, Its monogRAphs ARe foCused on key InfoRmAtIon. eACh monogRAph pResents A desCRIptIon of A CARCInogenIC Agent And how people ARe exposed, CRItICAl oVeRVIews of the epIdemIologICAl studIes And AnImAl CAnCeR bIoAssAys, And A ConCIse ReVIew of the Agent’s toxICokInetICs, plAusIble meChAnIsms of CARCInogenesIs, And potentIAlly susCeptIble populAtIons, And lIfe-stAges. detAIls of the desIgn And Results of IndIVIduAl epIdemIologICAl studIes And AnImAl CAnCeR bIoAssAys ARe summARIzed In tAbles. shoRt tAbles thAt hIghlIght key Results ARe pRInted In Volume 100, And moRe extensIVe tAbles thAt InClude All studIes AppeAR on the monogRAphs pRogRAmme websIte (http://monogRAphs.IARC.fR). It Is hoped thAt thIs Volume, by CompIlIng the knowledge ACCumulAted thRough seVeRAl deCAdes of CAnCeR ReseARCh, wIll stImulAte CAnCeR pReVentIon ACtIVItIes woRldwIde, And wIll be A VAlued ResouRCe foR futuRe ReseARCh to IdentIfy otheR Agents suspeCted of CAusIng CAnCeR In humAns. D es ig n by A ude la d es m ot s

378 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Timothy V. Johnson1
TL;DR: A summary of diesel emissions regulations, engine developments, and nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) remedia... is provided in this paper.
Abstract: This summary covers key and representative developments in diesel emissions regulations, engine developments, and nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) remedia...

291 citations