Ram Nageena Singh
Other affiliations: Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Bio: Ram Nageena Singh is an academic researcher from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pyrolysis & Biofuel. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 49 publications receiving 2364 citations. Previous affiliations of Ram Nageena Singh include Indian Agricultural Research Institute.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A review of the available literature in this field of active research and identifies the gaps that need further attention can be found in this article, where a number of pilot, demonstration and commercial plants processing various types of plastic wastes in Germany, Japan, USA, India, and elsewhere.
Abstract: The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas or coal. Thus mankind has to rely on the alternate/renewable energy sources like biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy, etc. On the other hand, suitable waste management strategy is another important aspect of sustainable development. The growth of welfare levels in modern society during the past decades has brought about a huge increase in the production of all kinds of commodities, which indirectly generate waste. Plastics have been one of the materials with the fastest growth because of their wide range of applications due to versatility and relatively low cost. Since the duration of life of plastic products is relatively small, there is a vast plastics waste stream that reaches each year to the final recipients creating a serious environmental problem. Again, because disposal of post consumer plastics is increasingly being constrained by legislation and escalating costs, there is considerable demand for alternatives to disposal or land filling. Advanced research in the field of green chemistry could yield biodegradable/green polymers but is too limited at this point of time to substitute the non-biodegradable plastics in different applications. Once standards are developed for degradable plastics they can be used to evaluate the specific formulations of materials which will find best application in this state as regards their performance and use characteristics. Among the alternatives available are source reduction, reuse, recycling, and recovery of the inherent energy value through waste-to-energy incineration and processed fuel applications. Production of liquid fuel would be a better alternative as the calorific value of the plastics is comparable to that of fuels, around 40 MJ/kg. Each of these options potentially reduces waste and conserves natural resources. Plastics recycling, continues to progress with a wide range of old and new technologies. Many research projects have been undertaken on chemical recycling of waste plastics to fuel and monomer. This is also reflected by a number of pilot, demonstration, and commercial plants processing various types of plastic wastes in Germany, Japan, USA, India, and elsewhere. Further investigations are required to enhance the generation of value added products (fuel) with low investments without affecting the environment. The paper reviews the available literature in this field of active research and identifies the gaps that need further attention.
TL;DR: In this article, the physicico-chemical characteristics of acid-leached kaolinite clay were studied by XRF, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM and N 2 adsorption techniques.
Abstract: Natural kaolin was refluxed with sulphuric acid of different concentrations 1 M, 3 M, 5 M and 10 M at 110 °C for 4 h followed by calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. The physico-chemical characteristics of acid-leached kaolinite clay were studied by XRF, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM and N 2 adsorption techniques. XRF and FTIR studies indicate that acid treatment under reflux conditions leads to the removal of the octahedral Al 3+ cations along with other impurities. XRD of 5 M and 10 M treated kaolin shows that treatment with high concentrated acid provoked an amorphization resulting in the formation of an amorphous silica type phase. Leaching of Al 3+ ions increased progressively with severity of the acid treatment. The acid treatment increased the Si/Al ratio from 0.65 to 8.09, surface area from 23 m 2 /g to 143 m 2 /g and pore volume from 0.361 cc/g to 1.18 cc/g as the acid concentration was increased to 10 M. Solids thus obtained by acid treatments can be used as promising adsorbents and catalyst supports.
TL;DR: In this article, a simple pyrolysis reactor system was used to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic as the material for pyrolyses, with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC.
Abstract: Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC. Results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450oC and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475oC. The yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste HDPE. The liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using FTIR and GC-MS. The physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), low density polyethylene (LDPE), and their mixtures of different ratios was investigated.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on plastic during co-pyrolysis with biomass. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), low density polyethylene (LDPE), and their mixtures of different ratios was carried out in a semi-batch reactor with varying temperatures ranging from 350 to 600 °C at a heating rate of 20 ± 1 °C/min. The maximum liquid product yields for the pyrolysis of SCB and LDPE obtained were 47.15% and 74.40%, respectively, whereas the maximum liquid product yield for SCB/LDPE co-pyrolysis was 52.75% at 500 °C with 1:1 blend ratio. A significant improvement of the calorific value has been observed for the co-pyrolytic oil in comparison with SCB pyrolytic oil. The results of GC–MS and FTIR analysis confirmed the interaction between SCB and LDPE during co-pyrolysis, which resulted into a decreasing amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol and acidic compounds, makes the co-pyrolysis process more favorable for the production of high calorific value fuel.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of temperature on pyrolysis of castor seeds to find the optimum temperature of maximum liquid yield was studied using TGA at a heating rate of 20 °C/min in air atmosphere.
Abstract: Bio-energy is now considered as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future. Slow pyrolysis is one of the three main thermal routes, with gasification and combustion, for providing a useful and valuable bio-fuel. Slow thermal pyrolysis of castor seeds were carried out in a semi batch reactor made up of stainless steel at temperature range from 450 °C to 600 °C to produce bio-fuel. This paper studied the effect of temperature on pyrolysis of castor seeds to find the optimum temperature of maximum liquid yield. The thermal degradation temperature of castor seed was studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) at a heating rate of 20 °C/min in air atmosphere. The oil samples obtained at optimum condition is analyzed according to their fuel properties, elemental analysis, functional group presents, and compounds presents.
01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization with Bioentrepreneur course, which addresses many issues unique to biomedical products.
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.
Abstract: The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum oil. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. Although vegetative oils can be fuel for diesel engines, but their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of its various derivatives. Among the different possible sources, fatty acid methyl esters, known as Biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides (vegetable oil and animal fates) by transesterification with methanol, present the promising alternative substitute to diesel fuels and have received the most attention now a day. The main advantages of using Biodiesel are its renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, its biodegradability and the organic carbon present in it is photosynthetic in origin. It does not contribute to a rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently to the green house effect. This paper reviews the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.
TL;DR: In this article, the pyrolysis process for each type of plastics and the main process parameters that influenced the final end product such as oil, gaseous and char were reviewed.
Abstract: The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental problem. The rising in plastics demand led to the depletion of petroleum as part of non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. Some alternatives that have been developed to manage plastic wastes were recycling and energy recovery method. However, there were some drawbacks of the recycling method as it required high labor cost for the separation process and caused water contamination that reduced the process sustainability. Due to these drawbacks, the researchers have diverted their attentions to the energy recovery method to compensate the high energy demand. Through extensive research and technology development, the plastic waste conversion to energy was developed. As petroleum was the main source of plastic manufacturing, the recovery of plastic to liquid oil through pyrolysis process had a great potential since the oil produced had high calorific value comparable with the commercial fuel. This paper reviewed the pyrolysis process for each type of plastics and the main process parameters that influenced the final end product such as oil, gaseous and char. The key parameters that were reviewed in this paper included temperatures, type of reactors, residence time, pressure, catalysts, type of fluidizing gas and its flow rate. In addition, several viewpoints to optimize the liquid oil production for each plastic were also discussed in this paper.
TL;DR: The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source as mentioned in this paper, however, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel.
Abstract: World energy demand is expected to increase due to the expanding urbanization, better living standards and increasing population. At a time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil fuels beside the environmental concerns, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. There are different potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Non-edible vegetable oils which are known as the second generation feedstocks can be considered as promising substitutions for traditional edible food crops for the production of biodiesel. The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source. Moreover, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel. Therefore, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. However, the potential of converting non-edible oil into biodiesel must be well examined. This is because physical and chemical properties of biodiesel produced from any feedstock must comply with the limits of ASTM and DIN EN specifications for biodiesel fuels. This paper introduces non-edible vegetable oils to be used as biodiesel feedstocks. Several aspects related to these feedstocks have been reviewed from various recent publications. These aspects include overview of non-edible oil resources, advantages of non-edible oils, problems in exploitation of non-edible oils, fatty acid composition profiles (FAC) of various non-edible oils, oil extraction techniques, technologies of biodiesel production from non-edible oils, biodiesel standards and characterization, properties and characteristic of non-edible biodiesel and engine performance and emission production. As a conclusion, it has been found that there is a huge chance to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources and therefore it can boost the future production of biodiesel.
TL;DR: The conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel is an effective way to overcome all the problems associated with the vegetable oils, such as high fuel viscosity, high ignition delay and longer combustion duration and hence low particulate emissions as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Biodiesel is a notable alternative to the widely used petroleum-derived diesel fuel since it can be generated by domestic natural sources such as soybeans, rapeseeds, coconuts, and even recycled cooking oil, and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel fuels, mainly as the result of their high viscosities. Modern diesel engines have fuel-injection system that is sensitive to viscosity change. One way to avoid these problems is to reduce fuel viscosity of vegetable oil in order to improve its performance. The conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel is an effective way to overcome all the problems associated with the vegetable oils. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis, and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Transesterification is the most common method and leads to monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and fats, now called biodiesel when used for fuel purposes. The methyl ester produced by transesterification of vegetable oil has a high cetane number, low viscosity and improved heating value compared to those of pure vegetable oil which results in shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration and hence low particulate emissions.