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Author

Ramamoorthy Ramesh

Bio: Ramamoorthy Ramesh is an academic researcher from Periyar University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ferroelectricity & Thin film. The author has an hindex of 122, co-authored 649 publications receiving 67418 citations. Previous affiliations of Ramamoorthy Ramesh include University of California, Berkeley & Telcordia Technologies.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Mar 2003-Science
TL;DR: Enhanced polarization and related properties in heteroepitaxially constrained thin films of the ferroelectromagnet, BiFeO3, and combined functional responses in thin film form present an opportunity to create and implement thin film devices that actively couple the magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters.
Abstract: Enhancement of polarization and related properties in heteroepitaxially constrained thin films of the ferroelectromagnet, BiFeO3, is reported. Structure analysis indicates that the crystal structure of film is monoclinic in contrast to bulk, which is rhombohedral. The films display a room-temperature spontaneous polarization (50 to 60 microcoulombs per square centimeter) almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the bulk (6.1 microcoulombs per square centimeter). The observed enhancement is corroborated by first-principles calculations and found to originate from a high sensitivity of the polarization to small changes in lattice parameters. The films also exhibit enhanced thickness-dependent magnetism compared with the bulk. These enhanced and combined functional responses in thin film form present an opportunity to create and implement thin film devices that actively couple the magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters.

5,387 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 1994-Science
TL;DR: A negative isotropic magnetoresistance effect has been observed in thin oxide films of perovskite-like La0.67Ca0.33MnOx, which could be useful for various magnetic and electric device applications if the observed effects of material processing are optimized.
Abstract: A negative isotropic magnetoresistance effect more than three orders of magnitude larger than the typical giant magnetoresistance of some superlattice films has been observed in thin oxide films of perovskite-like La0.67Ca0.33MnOx. Epitaxial films that are grown on LaAIO3 substrates by laser ablation and suitably heat treated exhibit magnetoresistance values as high as 127,000 percent near 77 kelvin and ∼1300 percent near room temperature. Such a phenomenon could be useful for various magnetic and electric device applications if the observed effects of material processing are optimized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed.

4,079 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel device paradigms based on magnetoelectric coupling are discussed, the key scientific challenges in the field are outlined, and high-quality thin-film multiferroics are reviewed.
Abstract: Multiferroic materials, which show simultaneous ferroelectric and magnetic ordering, exhibit unusual physical properties — and in turn promise new device applications — as a result of the coupling between their dual order parameters. We review recent progress in the growth, characterization and understanding of thin-film multiferroics. The availability of high-quality thin-film multiferroics makes it easier to tailor their properties through epitaxial strain, atomic-level engineering of chemistry and interfacial coupling, and is a prerequisite for their incorporation into practical devices. We discuss novel device paradigms based on magnetoelectric coupling, and outline the key scientific challenges in the field.

3,472 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
30 Jan 2004-Science
TL;DR: Thermodynamic analyses show that the magnetoelectric coupling in a nanostructured BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 ferroelectromagnet can be understood on the basis of the strong elastic interactions between the two phases.
Abstract: We report on the coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic order parameters in a nanostructured BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 ferroelectromagnet. This facilitates the interconversion of energies stored in electric and magnetic fields and plays an important role in many devices, including transducers, field sensors, etc. Such nanostructures were deposited on single-crystal SrTiO3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a single Ba-Ti-Co-Fe-oxide target. The films are epitaxial in-plane as well as out-of-plane with self-assembled hexagonal arrays of CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix. The CoFe2O4 nanopillars have uniform size and average spacing of 20 to 30 nanometers. Temperature-dependent magnetic measurements illustrate the coupling between the two order parameters, which is manifested as a change in magnetization at the ferroelectric Curie temperature. Thermodynamic analyses show that the magnetoelectric coupling in such a nanostructure can be understood on the basis of the strong elastic interactions between the two phases.

2,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fundamentally different mechanism for photovoltaic charge separation is reported, which operates over a distance of 1-2 nm and produces voltages that are significantly higher than the bandgap.
Abstract: In conventional solid-state photovoltaics, electron-hole pairs are created by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the electric field spaning a micrometre-thick depletion region. The maximum voltage these devices can produce is equal to the semiconductor electronic bandgap. Here, we report the discovery of a fundamentally different mechanism for photovoltaic charge separation, which operates over a distance of 1-2 nm and produces voltages that are significantly higher than the bandgap. The separation happens at previously unobserved nanoscale steps of the electrostatic potential that naturally occur at ferroelectric domain walls in the complex oxide BiFeO(3). Electric-field control over domain structure allows the photovoltaic effect to be reversed in polarity or turned off. This new degree of control, and the high voltages produced, may find application in optoelectronic devices.

1,434 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Feb 1996-Science
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the properties of quantum dots and their ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery, such as the ability of joining the dots to complex assemblies.
Abstract: Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots-fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms-with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a material that has a larger band gap. Quantum dots exhibit strongly size-dependent optical and electrical properties. The ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery.

10,737 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2001-Science
TL;DR: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.
Abstract: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

9,917 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

9,158 citations