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Ramesh Jain

Bio: Ramesh Jain is an academic researcher from University of California, Irvine. The author has contributed to research in topics: Event (computing) & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 78, co-authored 556 publications receiving 37037 citations. Previous affiliations of Ramesh Jain include Georgia Institute of Technology & University of California.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The working conditions of content-based retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap are discussed, as well as aspects of system engineering: databases, system architecture, and evaluation.
Abstract: Presents a review of 200 references in content-based image retrieval. The paper starts with discussing the working conditions of content-based retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap. Subsequent sections discuss computational steps for image retrieval systems. Step one of the review is image processing for retrieval sorted by color, texture, and local geometry. Features for retrieval are discussed next, sorted by: accumulative and global features, salient points, object and shape features, signs, and structural combinations thereof. Similarity of pictures and objects in pictures is reviewed for each of the feature types, in close connection to the types and means of feedback the user of the systems is capable of giving by interaction. We briefly discuss aspects of system engineering: databases, system architecture, and evaluation. In the concluding section, we present our view on: the driving force of the field, the heritage from computer vision, the influence on computer vision, the role of similarity and of interaction, the need for databases, the problem of evaluation, and the role of the semantic gap.

6,447 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: This text intentionally omits theories of machine vision that do not have sufficient practical applications at the time, and basic concepts are introduced with only essential mathematical elements.
Abstract: This text is intended to provide a balanced introduction to machine vision. Basic concepts are introduced with only essential mathematical elements. The details to allow implementation and use of vision algorithm in practical application are provided, and engineering aspects of techniques are emphasized. This text intentionally omits theories of machine vision that do not have sufficient practical applications at the time.

2,365 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey reviews 100+ recent articles on content-based multimedia information retrieval and discusses their role in current research directions which include browsing and search paradigms, user studies, affective computing, learning, semantic queries, new features and media types, high performance indexing, and evaluation techniques.
Abstract: Extending beyond the boundaries of science, art, and culture, content-based multimedia information retrieval provides new paradigms and methods for searching through the myriad variety of media all over the world. This survey reviews 100p recent articles on content-based multimedia information retrieval and discusses their role in current research directions which include browsing and search paradigms, user studies, affective computing, learning, semantic queries, new features and media types, high performance indexing, and evaluation techniques. Based on the current state of the art, we discuss the major challenges for the future.

1,652 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A piecewise-smooth surface model for image data that possesses surface coherence properties is used to develop an algorithm that simultaneously segments a large class of images into regions of arbitrary shape and approximates image data with bivariate functions so that it is possible to compute a complete, noiseless image reconstruction based on the extracted functions and regions.
Abstract: The solution of the segmentation problem requires a mechanism for partitioning the image array into low-level entities based on a model of the underlying image structure. A piecewise-smooth surface model for image data that possesses surface coherence properties is used to develop an algorithm that simultaneously segments a large class of images into regions of arbitrary shape and approximates image data with bivariate functions so that it is possible to compute a complete, noiseless image reconstruction based on the extracted functions and regions. Surface curvature sign labeling provides an initial coarse image segmentation, which is refined by an iterative region-growing method based on variable-order surface fitting. Experimental results show the algorithm's performance on six range images and three intensity images. >

1,151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a precise definition of the 3D object recognition problem is proposed, and basic concepts associated with this problem are discussed, and a review of relevant literature is provided.
Abstract: A general-purpose computer vision system must be capable of recognizing three-dimensional (3-D) objects. This paper proposes a precise definition of the 3-D object recognition problem, discusses basic concepts associated with this problem, and reviews the relevant literature. Because range images (or depth maps) are often used as sensor input instead of intensity images, techniques for obtaining, processing, and characterizing range data are also surveyed.

1,146 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
Paul J. Besl1, H.D. McKay1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a general-purpose representation-independent method for the accurate and computationally efficient registration of 3D shapes including free-form curves and surfaces, based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, which requires only a procedure to find the closest point on a geometric entity to a given point.
Abstract: The authors describe a general-purpose, representation-independent method for the accurate and computationally efficient registration of 3-D shapes including free-form curves and surfaces. The method handles the full six degrees of freedom and is based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, which requires only a procedure to find the closest point on a geometric entity to a given point. The ICP algorithm always converges monotonically to the nearest local minimum of a mean-square distance metric, and the rate of convergence is rapid during the first few iterations. Therefore, given an adequate set of initial rotations and translations for a particular class of objects with a certain level of 'shape complexity', one can globally minimize the mean-square distance metric over all six degrees of freedom by testing each initial registration. One important application of this method is to register sensed data from unfixtured rigid objects with an ideal geometric model, prior to shape inspection. Experimental results show the capabilities of the registration algorithm on point sets, curves, and surfaces. >

17,598 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective is presented, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners.
Abstract: Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify cross-cutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.

14,054 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image, and an iterative implementation is shown which successfully computes the Optical Flow for a number of synthetic image sequences.

10,727 citations