Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ...read more
Bio: Ramkrishna Sen is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biomass & Surfactin. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 173 publications receiving 7437 citations. Previous affiliations of Ramkrishna Sen include Indian Institutes of Technology & Birla Institute of Technology and Science.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Practical approaches that have been adopted to make the biosurfactant production process economically attractive include the use of cheaper raw materials, optimized and efficient bioprocesses and overproducing mutant and recombinant strains for obtaining maximum productivity.
Abstract: Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. Biosurfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals owing to their unique properties – higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, and effectiveness at extremes of temperature, pH and salinity. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized because of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This article describes some practical approaches that have been adopted to make the biosurfactant production process economically attractive: these include the use of cheaper raw materials, optimized and efficient bioprocesses and overproducing mutant and recombinant strains for obtaining maximum productivity. The application of these strategies in biosurfactant production processes, particularly those using hyper-producing recombinant strains in the optimally controlled environment of a bioreactor, might lead towards the successful commercial production of these valuable and versatile biomolecules in near future.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the operating mechanisms and progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products is presented, and the importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed.
Abstract: Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further improve the process efficiency for writing more success stories. Thus, this review attempts to address almost all the issues concerning the MEOR, its past and recent trends and its future prospect and directions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review sheds light on some of the practical approaches that can be adopted to make the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol economically attractive, such as the use of cheaper substrates, cost-effective pre-treatment techniques, over-producing and recombinant strains for maximized ethanol tolerance and yields, improved recovery processes, efficient bioprocess integration, economic exploitation of side products, and energy and waste minimization.
Abstract: With diminishing oil supplies and growing political instability in oil-producing nations, the world is facing a major energy threat which needs to be solved by virtue of alternative energy sources. Bioethanol has received considerable attention in the transportation sector because of its utility as an octane booster, fuel additive, and even as neat fuel. Brazil and the USA have been producing ethanol on a large scale from sugarcane and corn, respectively. However, due to their primary utility as food and feed, these crops cannot meet the global demand for ethanol production as an alternative transportation fuel. Lignocellulosic biomass is projected as a virtually eternal raw material for fuel ethanol production. The main bottleneck so far has been the technology concerns, which do not support cost-effective and competitive production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. This review sheds light on some of the practical approaches that can be adopted to make the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol economically attractive. These include the use of cheaper substrates, cost-effective pre-treatment techniques, overproducing and recombinant strains for maximized ethanol tolerance and yields, improved recovery processes, efficient bioprocess integration, economic exploitation of side products, and energy and waste minimization. An integrated and dedicated approach can help in realizing large-scale commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol, and can contribute toward a cleaner and more energy efficient world. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
TL;DR: The objective is to isolate the biologically active fraction of the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus circulans and study its antimicrobial potentials.
Abstract: Aims: To isolate the biologically active fraction of the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus circulans and study its antimicrobial potentials. Methods and Results: The marine isolate B. circulans was cultivated in glucose mineral salts medium and the crude biosurfactant was isolated by chemical isolation method. The crude biosurfactants were solvent extracted with methanol and the methanol extract was subjected to reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The crude biosurfactants resolved into six major fractions in HPLC. The sixth HPLC fraction eluting at a retention time of 27·3 min showed the maximum surface tension-reducing property and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mNm−1 to 28 mNm−1. Only this fraction was found to posses bioactivity and showed a pronounced antimicrobial action against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic and semi-pathogenic micro-organisms including a few multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic clinical isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of this antimicrobial fraction of the biosurfactant were determined for these test organisms. The biosurfactant was found to be active against Gram-negative bacteria such as Proteus vulgaris and Alcaligens faecalis at a concentration as low as 10 μg ml−1. The biosurfactant was also active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other MDR pathogenic strains. The chemical identity of this bioactive biosurfactant fraction was determined by post chromatographic detection using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and also by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The antimicrobial HPLC fraction resolved as a single spot on TLC and showed positive reaction with ninhydrin, iodine and rhodamine-B reagents, indicating its lipopeptide nature. IR absorption by this fraction also showed similar and overlapping patterns with that of other lipopeptide biosurfactants such as surfactin and lichenysin, proving this biosurfactant fraction to be a lipopeptide. The biosurfactant did not show any haemolytic activity when tested on blood agar plates, unlike the lipopeptide biosurfactant surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis. Conclusions: The biosurfactant produced by marine B. circulans had a potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic and semi-pathogenic microbial strains including MDR strains. Only one of the HPLC fractions of the crude biosurfactants was responsible for its antimicrobial action. The antimicrobial lipopeptide biosurfactant fraction was also found to be nonhaemolytic in nature. Significance and impact of the study: This work presents a nonhaemolytic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine micro-organism possessing a pronounced antimicrobial action against a wide range of bacteria. There is a high demand for new antimicrobial agents because of the increased resistance shown by pathogenic micro-organisms against the existing antimicrobial drugs. This study provides an insight into the search of new bioactive molecules from marine micro-organisms.
TL;DR: Combination of integrated conversion techniques along with process integration is suggested as a sustainable approach and introducing 'series concept' accompanying intermittent dark/photo fermentation with co-cultivation of microalgae is conceptualised.
Abstract: A constant shift of society's dependence from petroleum-based energy resources towards renewable biomass-based has been the key to tackle the greenhouse gas emissions Effective use of biomass feedstock, particularly lignocellulosic, has gained worldwide attention lately Lignocellulosic biomass as a potent bioresource, however, cannot be a sustainable alternative if the production cost is too high and/ or the availability is limited Recycling the lignocellulosic biomass from various sources into value added products such as bio-oil, biochar or other biobased chemicals in a bio-refinery model is a sensible idea Combination of integrated conversion techniques along with process integration is suggested as a sustainable approach Introducing 'series concept' accompanying intermittent dark/photo fermentation with co-cultivation of microalgae is conceptualised While the cost of downstream processing for a single type of feedstock would be high, combining different feedstocks and integrating them in a bio-refinery model would lessen the production cost and reduce CO2 emission
31 Oct 2001
TL;DR: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as mentioned in this paper is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards for testing and materials, and is a member of IEEE 802.11.
Abstract: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural wastes is discussed, which can increase concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, thereby improving the efficiency of the whole process.
Abstract: Due to rapid growth in population and industrialization, worldwide ethanol demand is increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production. Agricultural wastes are cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from agricultural waste could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. Proper pretreatment methods can increase concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, thereby improving the efficiency of the whole process. Conversion of glucose as well as xylose to ethanol needs some new fermentation technologies, to make the whole process cost effective. In this review, available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural wastes are discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive state of the art describing the advancement in recent pretreaments, metabolic engineering approaches with special emphasis on the latest developments in consolidated biomass processing, current global scenario of bioethanol pilot plants and biorefinery concept for the production of biofuels and bioproducts.
Abstract: Bioconversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel and value added products are globally gaining significant prominence. Market forces demonstrate a drive towards products benign to natural environment increasing the importance of renewable materials. The development of second generation bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass serves many advantages from both energy and environmental point of views. Biomass an inexpensive feedstock considered sustainable and renewable, is an option with the potential to replace a wide diversity of fossil based products within the energy sector; heat, power, fuels, materials and chemicals. Lignocellulose is a major structural component of woody and non-woody plants and consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The effective utilization of all the three components would play a significant role in the economic viability of cellulosic ethanol. Biomass conversion process involves five major steps, choice of suitable biomass, effective pretreatment, production of saccharolytic enzymes-cellulases and hemicellulases, fermentation of hexoses and pentoses and downstream processing. Within the context of production of fuels from biomass, pretreatment has come to denote processes by which cellulosic biomass is made amenable to the action of hydrolytic enzymes. The limited effectiveness of current enzymatic process on lignocellulose is thought to be due to the relative difficulties in pretreating the feedstocks. The present review is a comprehensive state of the art describing the advancement in recent pretreaments, metabolic engineering approaches with special emphasis on the latest developments in consolidated biomass processing, current global scenario of bioethanol pilot plants and biorefinery concept for the production of biofuels and bioproducts.
TL;DR: The current knowledge and the latest advances in biosurfactant applications and the biotechnological strategies being developed for improving production processes and future potential are reviewed.
Abstract: Microorganisms synthesise a wide range of surface-active compounds (SAC), generally called biosurfactants. These compounds are mainly classified according to their molecular weight, physico-chemical properties and mode of action. The low-molecular-weight SACs or biosurfactants reduce the surface tension at the air/water interfaces and the interfacial tension at oil/water interfaces, whereas the high-molecular-weight SACs, also called bioemulsifiers, are more effective in stabilising oil-in-water emulsions. Biosurfactants are attracting much interest due to their potential advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many fields spanning environmental, food, biomedical, and other industrial applications. Their large-scale application and production, however, are currently limited by the high cost of production and by limited understanding of their interactions with cells and with the abiotic environment. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and the latest advances in biosurfactant applications and the biotechnological strategies being developed for improving production processes and future potential.
TL;DR: A review of the major steps involved in cellulosic-based bioethanol processes and potential issues challenging these operations is provided in this paper, where possible solutions and recoveries that could improve bioprocessing are also addressed.
Abstract: During the most recent decades increased interest in fuel from biomass in the United States and worldwide has emerged each time petroleum derived gasoline registered well publicized spikes in price. The willingness of the U.S. government to face the issues of more heavily high-priced foreign oil and climate change has led to more investment on plant-derived sustainable biofuel sources. Biomass derived from corn has become one of the primary feedstocks for bioethanol production for the past several years in the U.S. However, the argument of whether to use food as biofuel has led to a search for alternative non-food sources. Consequently, industrial research efforts have become more focused on low-cost large-scale processes for lignocellulosic feedstocks originating mainly from agricultural and forest residues along with herbaceous materials and municipal wastes. Although cellulosic-derived biofuel is a promising technology, there are some obstacles that interfere with bioconversion processes reaching optimal performance associated with minimal capital investment. This review summarizes current approaches on lignocellulosic-derived biofuel bioconversion and provides an overview on the major steps involved in cellulosic-based bioethanol processes and potential issues challenging these operations. Possible solutions and recoveries that could improve bioprocessing are also addressed. This includes the development of genetically engineered strains and emerging pretreatment technologies that might be more efficient and economically feasible. Future prospects toward achieving better biofuel operational performance via systems approaches such as risk and life cycle assessment modeling are also discussed.