Bio: Randy Graff is an academic researcher from University of Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Professional development & Higher education. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 9 publications receiving 94 citations.
TL;DR: A web-enhanced seminar was provided to address the pedagogical needs of professional faculty educators at a college of dentistry in a research-intensive university in fall 2006 and documented improvement in the participants' confidence and an enhanced awareness of their teaching practices.
Abstract: A web-enhanced seminar was provided to address the pedagogical needs of professional faculty educators at a college of dentistry in a research-intensive university in fall 2006. In this qualitative report, the authors describe the participants’ (n=12) perceptions and evaluation of the seminar. An evaluation of the seminar journals showed documented improvement in the participants’ confidence and an enhanced awareness of their teaching practices. Six themes (new knowledge, planned change, awareness, changes made, current practice, and challenges to learning) ranging from 5.3 percent to 35.5 percent among four to twelve participants emerged across their learning journals. Participants also rated the course 4.9 on a five-point scale in helping them understand a variety of teaching modalities other than lecture and the sole use of multiple-choice tests as insufficient. When we invest resources in our faculty, progress is made towards ensuring quality teaching, as well as increased understanding and enhanced communication in the teaching and learning environment. This recursive process not only influences the faculty and those they teach but the patients they care for as well.
TL;DR: Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development.
Abstract: Practical and effective faculty development programs are vital to individual and institutional success. However, there is little evidence that program outcomes result in instructional changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how faculty development would enhance participants' use of critical thinking skills in instruction. Seven faculty members from the University of Florida College of Dentistry and one faculty member from another health science college participated in six weekly two-hour faculty development sessions in spring 2007 that focused on enhancing critical thinking skills in instruction. Kaufman's and Rachal's principles of andragogy (adult learning) were used to design the sessions. Participants used learning journals to respond to four instructor-assigned prompts and provided one presentation to peers. With the use of qualitative methods, eight themes emerged across the learning journals: teaching goals, critical thinking, awareness of learners, planned instructional change, teaching efficacy, self-doubt, external challenges, and changes made. Five of eight participants incorporated critical thinking skills into their presentations at a mean level of 2.4 or higher on a 5-point scale using Paul and Elder's behavioral definition of critical thinking skills. Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development.
TL;DR: Overall, the findings showed that participants demonstrated the integration of those strategies that were taught during the seminars, which were consistent with teaching critical thinking skills and showed that the learning acquired during professional development initiatives was sustained.
Abstract: Prior research has found that participation in course offerings provides a means of professional development and results in changes to faculty beliefs and instructional practices. However, as with most professional development initiatives in education, little is known about the sustainability of these training efforts. The research question that guided this study was the following: Do professional development efforts in teaching result in observed learning outcomes among faculty members? In this study, teaching observations served as the primary data source. Twelve faculty members (six in the College of Dentistry and six in the College of Health and Human Performance) who completed two six-week teaching seminars in fall 2006 and spring 2007 or spring 2008 and summer 2008 were asked to participate in a classroom observation and an interview lasting no longer than forty-five minutes. Six dental faculty members and three faculty members from the College of Health and Human Performance agreed to participate in the study. Three standardized reviewers conducted these classroom observations during fall 2008, spring 2009, and summer 2009. An active teaching rubric was used to evaluate the class transcripts. The findings revealed that participants somewhat frequently to frequently used questions that were open-ended or checked for comprehension. Seven of nine instructors made extensive efforts to engage the students interactively throughout the teaching session. Six of the participants infused the description of actual or hypothetical cases to illustrate the connections between teaching and patient care, while six utilized reflective practices. Findings from the interviews corroborated the observations. Overall, the findings showed that participants demonstrated the integration of those strategies that were taught during the seminars, which were consistent with teaching critical thinking skills and showed that the learning acquired during professional development initiatives was sustained.
••01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In 2008-2009, the University of Florida (UF) undertook a process of selecting a new course management system (CMS) to replace the existing CMS as discussed by the authors, and the process developed to evaluate CMS options, discusses the data gathered during that process and interesting implications of that data, and then presents broader implications of course management systems adoption to inform other institutions during their own evaluation and adoption processes.
Abstract: In 2008-2009, the University of Florida (UF) undertook a process of selecting a new course management system (CMS) to replace the existing CMS. This chapter presents the process developed to evaluate CMS options, discusses the data gathered during that process and interesting implications of that data, and then presents broader implications of course management system adoption to inform other institutions during their own evaluation and adoption processes. This information will be of value to higher education institutions and also to instructors who may benefit by considering this discussion while looking to maximize their own use of a local CMS and/or to choose tools that enable personal learning environments, as well as other online tools to support teaching and learning.
01 Jan 2008
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of education as an avenue to liberate student learning capacity and, by doing so, to help teachers take charge of their lives as teachers.
Abstract: Dedication Preface Foreword PART I: FRAME OF REFERENCE We begin with the idea of giving students the tools that increase their capacity for learning. The primary role of education is to increase student capacity for personal growth, social growth, and academic learning. Models of Teaching is an avenue to liberate student learning capacity and, by doing so, to help teachers take charge of their lives as teachers. CHAPTER 1: BEGINNING THE INQUIRY Creating Communities of Expert Learners On the whole, students are in schools and classes within those schools. Both need to be developed into learning communities and provided with the models of learning that enable them to become expert learners. We study how to build those learning communities. CHAPTER 2: WHERE MODELS OF TEACHING COME FROM Multiple Ways of Constructing Knowledge The history of teacher researchers comes to us in the form of models of teaching that enable us to construct vital environments for our students. Models have come from the ages and from teacher-researchers who have invented new ways of teaching. Some of these are submitted to research and development and how teachers can learn to use them. Those are the models that are included in this book. CHAPTER 3: STUDYING THE SLOWLY-GROWING KNOWLEDGE BASE IN EDUCATION A Basic Guide Through the Rhetorical Thickets We draw on descriptive studies, experimental studies, and experience to give us a fine beginning to what will eventually become a research-based profession. Here we examine what we have learned about how to design good instruction and effective curriculums. And, we learn how to avoid some destructive practices. CHAPTER 4: MODELS OF TEACHING AND TEACHING STYLES Three Sides of Teaching--Styles, Models, and Diversity We are people and our personalities greatly affect the environments that our students experience. And, as we use various models of teaching our selves -- our natural styles -- color how those models work in the thousands of classrooms in our society. Moreover, those models and our styles affect the achievement of the diverse students in our classes and schools. PART II: THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING FAMILYOF MODELS How can we and our students best acquire information, organize it, and explain it? For thousands of years philosophers, educators, psychologists, and artists have developed ways to gather and process information. Here are several live ones. CHAPTER 5: LEARNING TO THINK INDUCTIVELY Forming Concepts by Collecting and Organizing Information Human beings are born to build concepts. The vast intake of information is sifted and organized and the conceptual structures that guide our lives are developed. The inductive model builds on and enhances the inborn capacity of our students. CHAPTER 6: ATTAINING CONCEPTS Sharpening Basic Thinking Skills Students can develop concepts. They also can learn concepts developed by others. Concept attainment teaches students how to learn and use concepts and develop and test hypotheses. CHAPTER 7: THE PICTURE-WORD INDUCTIVE MODEL Developing Literacy across the Curriculum Built on the language experience approach, the picture-word inductive model enables beginning readers to develop sight vocabularies, learn to inquire into the structure of words and sentences, write sentences and paragraphs, and, thus, to be powerful language learners. In Chapter 19 the outstanding results from primary curriculums and curriculums for older struggling readers are displayed. CHAPTER 8: SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND INQUIRY TRAINING The Art of Making Inferences From the time of Aristotle, we have had educators who taught science-in-the-making rather than teaching a few facts and hoping for the best. We introduce you to a model of teaching that is science on the hoof, so to speak. This model has had effects, among other things, on improving the capacity of students to learn. We concentrate on the Biological Sciences Study Group, where for 40 years science teachers have shared information and generated new ideas. And, Inquiry training is a "best yet" model for teaching basic inquiry skills. CHAPTER 9: MEMORIZATION Getting the Facts Straight Memorization has had something of a bad name, mostly because of deadly drills. Contemporary research and innovative teachers have created methods that not only improve our efficiency in memorization, but also make the process delightful. CHAPTER 10: SYNECTICS The Arts of Enhancing Creative Thought Creative thought has often been thought of as the province of a special few, and something that the rest of us cannot aspire to. Not so. Synectics brings to all students the development of metaphoric thinking -- the foundation of creative thought. The model continues to improve. CHAPTER 11: LEARNING FROM PRESENTATIONS Advance Organizers Learning from presentations has almost as bad a name as learning by memorization. Ausubel developed a system for creating lectures and other presentations that will increase learner activity and, subsequently, learning. PART III: THE SOCIAL FAMILY OF MODELS Working together might just enhance all of us. The social family expands what we can do together and generates the creation of democracy in our society in venues large and small. In addition, the creation of learning communities can enhance the learning of all students dramatically. CHAPTER 12: PARTNERS IN LEARNING From Dyads to Group Investigation Can two students who are paired in learning increase their learning? Can students organized into a democratic learning community apply scientific methods to their learning? You bet they can. Group Investigation can be used to redesign schools, increase personal, social, and academic learning among all students, and -- is very satisfying to teach. CHAPTER 13: THE STUDY OF VALUES Role Playing and Public Policy Education Values provide the center of our behavior, helping us get direction and understand other directions. Policy issues involve the understanding of values and the costs and benefits of selecting some solutions rather than others. In these models, values are central. Think for a moment about the issues that face our society right now -- research on cells, international peace, including our roles in Iraq and the rest of the Middle East, the battle against AIDS, poverty, and who controls the decisions about pregnancy and abortion. Not to mention just getting along together. PART IV: THE PERSONAL FAMILY OF MODELS The learner always does the learning. His or her personality is what interacts with the learning environment. How do we give the learner centrality when we are trying to get that same person to grow and respond to tasks we believe will enhance growth? CHAPTER 14: NONDIRECTIVE TEACHING The Learner at the Center How do we think about ourselves as learners? As people? How can we organize schooling so that the personalities and emotions of students are taken into account? Let us inquire into the person who is the center of the education process. CHAPTER 15: DEVELOPING POSITIVE SELF-CONCEPTS The Inner Person of Boys and Girls, Men and Women If you feel great about yourself, you are likely to become a better learner. But you begin where you are. Enhancing self concept is a likely avenue. The wonderful work by the SIMs group in Kansas (see Chapter 3) has demonstrated how much can be accomplished. PART V: THE BEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS FAMILY OF MODELS We are what we do. So how do we learn to practice more productive behaviors? Let's explore some of the possibilities. CHAPTER 16: LEARNING TO LEARN FROM MASTERY LEARNING Bit by bit, block by block, we climb our way up a ladder to mastery. CHAPTER 17: DIRECT INSTRUCTION Why beat around the bush when you can just deal with things directly? Let's go for it! However, finesse is required, and that is what this chapter is all about. CHAPTER 18: LEARNING FROM SIMULATIONS Training and Self-Training How much can we learn from quasi-realities? The answer is, a good deal. Simulations enable us to learn from virtual realities where we can experience environments and problems beyond our present environment. Presently, they range all the way to space travel, thanks to NASA and affiliated developers. PART VI: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, DIVERSITY, AND CURRICULUM The rich countryside of humanity makes up the population of our schools. The evidence suggests that diversity enhances the energy of schools and classrooms. However, some forms of teaching make it difficult for individual differences to flourish. We emphasize the curriculums and models of teaching that enable individual differences to thrive. CHAPTER 19: LEARNING STYLES AND MODELS OF TEACHING Making Discomfort Productive By definition, learning requires knowing, thinking, or doing things we couldn't do before the learning took place. Curriculums and teaching need to be shaped to take us where we haven't been. The trick is to develop an optimal mismatch in which we are pushed but the distance is manageable. CHAPTER 20: EQUITY Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Background The task here is to enable differences to become an advantage. The best curriculums and models of teaching do just that. In other words, if differences are disadvantages, it is because of how we teach. CHAPTER 21: CREATING AND TESTING CURRICULUMS The Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne's framework for building curriculums is discussed and illustrated. This content is not simple, but it is powerful. CHAPTER 22: TWO WORDS ON THE FUTURE The Promise of Distance Learning and Using Models of Teaching to Ensure that No Child is Left Behind. Afterword APPENDIX PEER COACHING GUIDES Related Literature and References Index
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The Future of Drylands (FOD) conference as mentioned in this paper is an international scientific conference dedicated to science, education, culture and communication in arid and semi-arid zones.
Abstract: On behalf of Mr. Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, it is my great pleasure to welcome you all to this international scientific conference. Drylands are often considered fragile ecosystems, yet they have a remarkable resilience to stress. They are home to unique and well-adapted plant and animal species that we need to conserve. Some of the world’s greatest cultures and belief systems have originated in drylands. On the other hand, desertification and land degradation in drylands often result in poverty and cause environmental refugees to abandon their homes. These problems can only be addressed in a holistic manner, based on sound scientific research and findings. Solutions to the problems of dryland degradation need to be communicated as widely as possible through education at all levels. These are many reasons why UNESCO – within its mandate of science, education, culture and communication – took the intiative to organize this conference. And we are glad that so many partners have responded to our call. UNESCO considers this conference as its main contribution to the observance of the International Year of Deserts and Desertification in 2006. We have deliberately chosen the title ‘The Future of Drylands’ as we feel it is time to redefine our priorities for science, education and governance in the drylands based on 50 years of scientific research in arid and semi-arid zones. In fact UNESCO has one of the longest traditions, within the UN system, of addressing dryland problems from an interdisciplinary, scientific point of view. In 1955, the ‘International Arid Land Meetings’ were held in Socorro, New Mexico (USA). They were organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), sponsored by UNESCO and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. One important output of the International Arid Land Meetings was a book entitled The Future of Drylands, edited by Gilbert F. White and published in
01 Apr 2002
TL;DR: This literature review will present a history of inquiry into critical thinking and research to support the conclusion that critical thinking is necessary not only in the clinical practice setting, but also as an integral component of nursing-education programmes to promote the development of nurses' critical-thinking abilities.
Abstract: The need for critical thinking in nursing has been accentuated in response to the rapidly changing health care environment. Nurses must think critically to provide effective care whilst coping with the expansion in role associated with the complexities of current health care systems. This literature review will present a history of inquiry into critical thinking and research to support the conclusion that critical thinking is necessary not only in the clinical practice setting, but also as an integral component of nursing education programs to promote the development of nurses’ critical thinking abilities. The aims of this paper are: (a) to review the literature on critical thinking; (b) to examine the dimensions of critical thinking; (c) to investigate the various critical thinking strategies for their appropriateness to enhance critical thinking in nurses, and; (d) to examine issues relating to evaluation of critical thinking skills in nursing.
TL;DR: In this paper, a meta-analysis presented a synthesis of empirical studies designed to promote measurable changes in students' critical thinking skills using instructional interventions and found that student discipline and treatment length explained part of the variability among treatment effects.
Abstract: Promoting students’ critical thinking skills is an important task of higher education. Colleges and universities have designed various instructional interventions to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Empirical studies have yielded inconsistent results in terms of the effects of such interventions. This meta-analysis presents a synthesis of empirical studies designed to promote measurable changes in students’ critical thinking skills using instructional interventions. Findings demonstrated statistically significant but small average effect size and evidence of heterogeneity among studies. Hierarchical linear model was adopted to explore potential predictors of the variance across effect sizes. Results showed that student discipline and treatment length explained part of the variability among treatment effects. Limitations and implications are discussed.