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Rashmi Agarwal

Bio: Rashmi Agarwal is an academic researcher from Mohanlal Sukhadia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Digital watermarking & Watermark. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 3 publications receiving 16 citations.

Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Dec 2011
TL;DR: The proposed method demonstrates that color image watermarking is possible without affecting its visual quality and also allows for reasonable compromise between robustness and invisibility of watermarks.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new invisible, non-blind digital watermarking scheme for color images based on singular vector domain (SVD). In this new approach, same or different watermarks can be embedded into the three color channels (R, G, B) of the host image in order to increase the robustness of the watermark. The proposed method demonstrates that color image watermarking is possible without affecting its visual quality and also allows for reasonable compromise between robustness and invisibility of watermarks. This research, based on our earlier work, consists of embedding a gray watermark into a gray host and a color watermark into a color host based on the singular vector domain. The main feature of our scheme is to use all channels of RGB color space to embed watermarks. Hence we are embedding maximum amount of watermark and also make it more secure. The other feature of our scheme is that it can be used for a variety of applications since we can perform single channel embedding to multichannel embedding. We then show our simulation results for one channel, two channel and three channel and also results for how it behaves under various attacks.

10 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper proposes an algorithm for embedding and extracting watermark in a host image and analytically obtain a parameter related to this procedure and shows that the algorithm performs well even if the host image is corrupted by various attacks.
Abstract: Most of the well known algorithms for watermarking of digital images involve transformation of the image data to Fourier or singular vector space. In this paper, we introduce watermarking in Hilbert transform domain for digital media. Generally, if the image is a matrix of order $m$ by $n$, then the transformed space is also an image of the same order. However, with Hilbert transforms, the transformed space is of order $2m$ by $2n$. This allows for more latitude in storing the watermark in the host image. Based on this idea, we propose an algorithm for embedding and extracting watermark in a host image and analytically obtain a parameter related to this procedure. Using extensive simulations, we show that the algorithm performs well even if the host image is corrupted by various attacks.

4 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed an algorithm for embedding and extracting watermark in a host image and analytically obtain a parameter related to this procedure, using extensive simulations, they show that the algorithm performs well even if the host image is corrupted by various attacks.
Abstract: Most of the well known algorithms for watermarking of digital images involve transformation of the image data to Fourier or singular vector space. In this paper, we introduce watermarking in Hilbert transform domain for digital media. Hilbert transform provides an analytic representation of a signal in terms of a phase and amplitude function. In this work, we apply one-dimensional Hilbert transform on each of the vectors that define an image and embed the watermark in its phase. Based on this idea, we propose an algorithm for embedding and extracting watermark in a host image and analytically obtain a parameter related to this procedure. Using extensive simulations, we show that the algorithm performs well even if the host image is corrupted by various attacks.

2 citations


Cited by
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01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed and simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.
Abstract: A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed. The color components are uncorrelated using principle component analysis. The watermark is embedded into the singular values of discrete wavelet transformed sub-band associated with principle component containing most of the color information. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, rotation, Gaussian noise, scaling, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, median filtering, affine transformation, translation, salt & pepper, sharpening), to check robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with state-of-the-art existing color watermarking schemes using normalized correlation coefficient and peak signal to noise ratio. The simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper highlights the potential to apply the modified watermark algorithms to secure IoT networks and provides the motivations, objectives and applications of the recent secure watermarking techniques in IoT.
Abstract: Information security is considered one of the most important issues in various infrastructures related to the field of data communication where most of the modern studies focus on finding effective and low-weight secure approaches. Digital watermarking is a trend in security techniques that hides data by using data embedding and data extraction processes. Watermarking technology is integrated into different frames without adding an overheard as in the conventional encryption. Therefore, it is efficient to be used in data encryption for applications that run over limited resources such as the Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, different digital watermarking algorithms and approaches are presented. Additionally, watermarking requirements and challenges are illustrated in detail. Moreover, the common architecture of the watermarking system is described. Furthermore, IoT technology and its challenges are highlighted. Finally, the paper provides the motivations, objectives and applications of the recent secure watermarking techniques in IoT and summarises them into one table. In addition, the paper highlights the potential to apply the modified watermark algorithms to secure IoT networks.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2020
TL;DR: Results of simulations show that the proposed DIW scheme not only satisfies the need for invisibility but also has better or comparable robustness as compared to other recently published watermarking methods.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel digital image watermarking (DIW) scheme. This DIW scheme is based on a hybrid DWT-SVD transform domain and modified whale optimization algorithm (MWOA), making use of multiscale factors (MSFs) to control the trade-off between invisibility and robustness. The values of MSFs have been determined using MWOA, which is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm inspired by the bubble-net hunting strategy of humpback whales. The essential feature of modified WOA is that it provides a global solution and also requires less internal parameters for optimization. Normalized cross-correlation and peak signal to noise ratio are utilized in the objective function design. Results of simulations show that the proposed DIW scheme not only satisfies the need for invisibility but also has better or comparable robustness as compared to other recently published watermarking methods.

12 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Dec 2012
TL;DR: A robust color image watermarking scheme is proposed, in which a color watermark is embedded into a color image, and which was tested against various attacks to check the robustness and imperceptible.
Abstract: A robust color image watermarking scheme is proposed, in which a color watermark is embedded into a color image. Principle component analysis is used to uncorrelate the R, G and B channels of both the images. Each channel of color watermark is embedded into singular values of corresponding channel of cover image after discrete wavelet decomposition. As original image is required at the time of extraction of watermark so given scheme is non-blind. Peak signal to noise ratio is used to measure the imperceptibility whereas similarity between original and extracted watermark is measured using normalized correlation coefficient. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, Gaussian noise, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, affine transformation, salt & pepper), to check the robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with existing color watermarking schemes. The results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

10 citations