Ravindra Mohan Pandey
Bio: Ravindra Mohan Pandey is an academic researcher from All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 59, co-authored 532 publications receiving 13451 citations. Previous affiliations of Ravindra Mohan Pandey include AIIMS, New Delhi & Safdarjang Hospital.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Appreciable prevalence of obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, substantial increase in body fat, generalised and regional obesity in middle age, particularly in females, need immediate attention in terms of prevention and health education in such economically deprived populations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, a prevalence survey of various atherosclerosis risk factors was carried out on hitherto poorly studied rural–urban migrants settled in urban slums in a large metropolitan city in northern India, with the aim of studying anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of this population in socio-economic transition. DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study. SUBJECTS: A total of 532 subjects (170 males and 362 females) were included in the study (response rate approximately 40%). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, diabetes mellitus was recorded in 11.2% (95% CI 6.8–16.9) of males and 9.9% (95% CI 7.0–13.5) of females, the overall prevalence being 10.3% (95% CI 7.8–13.2). Based on body mass index (BMI), obesity was more prevalent in females (15.6%; 95% CI 10.7–22.3) than in males (13.3%; 95% CI 8.5–19.5). On the other hand, classifying obesity based on percentage body fat (%BF), 10.6% (95% CI 6.4–16.2) of males and 40.2% (95% CI 34.9–45.3) of females were obese. High waist–hip ratio (WHR) was observed in 9.4% (95% CI 5.4–14.8) of males and 51.1% (95% CI 45.8–56.3) of the females. All individual skinfolds and sum of skinfolds were significantly higher in females (P 30%). Furthermore, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were high in both males and females. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both males and females BMI, WHR and %BF were positive predictors of biochemical parameters, except for HDL-c, for which these parameters were negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: Appreciable prevalence of obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, substantial increase in body fat, generalised and regional obesity in middle age, particularly in females, need immediate attention in terms of prevention and health education in such economically deprived populations.
TL;DR: In the northern Indian population, the conventional cut-off level of the BMI underestimates overweight and obesity when percentage BF is used as the standard to define overweight.
Abstract: Asian Indians are at high risk for the development of atherosclerosis and related complications, possibly initiated by higher body fat (BF). The present study attempted to establish appropriate cut-off levels of the BMI for defining overweight, considering percentage BF in healthy Asian Indians in northern India as the standard. A total of 123 healthy volunteers (eighty-six males aged 18--75 years and thirty-seven females aged 20--69 years) participated in the study. Clinical examination and anthropometric measurements were performed, and percentage BF was calculated. BMI for males was 21.4 (sd 3.7) kg/m(2) and for females was 23.3 (sd 5.5) kg/m(2). Percentage BF was 21.3 (sd 7.6) in males and 35.4 (sd 5.0) in females. A comparison of BF data among Caucasians, Blacks, Polynesians and Asian ethnic groups (e.g. immigrant Chinese) revealed conspicuous differences. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed a low sensitivity and negative predictive value of the conventional cut-off value of the BMI (25 kg/m(2)) in identifying subjects with overweight as compared to the cut-off value based on percentage BF (males >25, females >30). This observation is particularly obvious in females, resulting in substantial misclassification. Based on the ROC curve, a lower cut-off value of the BMI (21.5 kg/m(2) for males and 19.0 kg/m(2) for females) displayed the optimal sensitivity and specificity, and less misclassification in identification of subjects with high percentage BF. Furthermore, a novel obesity variable, BF:BMI, was tested and should prove useful for interethnic comparison of body composition. In the northern Indian population, the conventional cut-off level of the BMI underestimates overweight and obesity when percentage BF is used as the standard to define overweight. These preliminary findings, if confirmed in a larger number of subjects and with the use of instruments having a higher accuracy of BF assessment, would be crucial for planning and the prevention and treatment of various obesity-related metabolic diseases in the Asian Indian population.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the risk of hepatotoxicity from antituberculosis drugs is influenced by clinical and genetic factors.
Abstract: Though several risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity due to antituberculosis drugs have been suggested, involvement of genetic factors is not fully established. We have studied the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles and clinical risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity in 346 North Indian patients with tuberculosis undergoing antituberculosis treatment. Of these, 56 patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH group), whereas the remaining 290 patients did not (non-DIH group). The DIH group was comparatively older, had lower pretreatment serum albumin, and a higher frequency of moderately/far advanced disease radiographically than the latter. Further, patients with high alcohol intake had threefold higher odds of developing hepatotoxicity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.2), moderately/far advanced disease (OR 2.0), serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl (OR 2.3), absence of HLA-DQA1*0102 (OR 4.0), and presence of HLA-DQB1*0201 (OR 1.9) were independent risk factors for DIH. Our results suggest that the risk of hepatotoxicity from antituberculosis drugs is influenced by clinical and genetic factors.
TL;DR: To test the validity of internationally accepted waist circumference action levels for adult Asian Indians, analysis of data from multisite cross-sectional epidemiological studies in north India identified high odds ratio for cardiovascular risk factor(s) and BMI level of ⩾25 kg/m2.
Abstract: To test the validity of internationally accepted waist circumference (WC) action levels for adult Asian Indians. Analysis of data from multisite cross-sectional epidemiological studies in north India. In all, 2050 adult subjects >18 years of age (883 male and 1167 female subjects). Body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, blood pressure, and fasting samples for blood glucose, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In male subjects, a WC cutoff point of 78 cm (sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 68.0%), and in female subjects, a cutoff point of 72 cm (sensitivity 68.7%, specificity 71.8%) were appropriate in identifying those with at least one cardiovascular risk factor and for identifying those with a BMI >21 kg/m2. WC levels of ⩾90 and ⩾80 cm for men and women, respectively, identified high odds ratio for cardiovascular risk factor(s) and BMI level of ⩾25 kg/m2. The current internationally accepted WC cutoff points (102 cm in men and 88 cm in women) showed lower sensitivity and lower correct classification as compared to the WC cutoff points generated in the present study. We propose the following WC action levels for adult Asian Indians: action level 1: men, ⩾78 cm, women, ⩾72 cm; and action level 2: men, ⩾90 cm, women, ⩾80 cm.
TL;DR: The study showed that Asian Indians have excess cardiovascular risk at BMI and WC values considered "normal," and suggested that definitions of "normal" ranges of BMI andWC need to be revised for Asian Indians.
Abstract: Objective Although the prevalence of obesity is not high in Asian Indians, increased prevalence rates of metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular risk factors have been reported In this study, we evaluated body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, and body fat profiles of obese and non-obese subjects and correlated those values with cardiovascular risk factors Methods This cross-sectional study involved 639 subjects (170 men and 469 women) from low socioeconomic stratum residing in urban slums of New Delhi Non-obese subjects were categorized into quartiles of percentage of body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) Using logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus [DM], hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were computed with first quartile in the non-obese group as the reference category for the following five categories: %BF and WC quartiles in the non-obese group and obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) Results In the non-obese group, approximately 66% of men and 88% of women had at least one risk factor In non-obese women, significantly high ORs and 95% CIs were found for hypertension (32, 14–72), DM (28, 12–63), and hypertriglyceridemia (39, 19–83) in the upper quartiles of %BF, and significantly high OR (95% CIs) was observed for hypertriglyceridemia (39, 14–108) in non-obese men Among non-obese men, significantly high OR (95% CIs) was found for hypertriglyceridemia (32, 10–103); among non-obese women, significantly high ORs (95% CIs) were observed for hypertension (25, 11–58) and hypertriglyceridemia (25, 12–52) in the normal range of WC (70–80 cm) Conclusion The study showed that Asian Indians have excess cardiovascular risk at BMI and WC values considered “normal” These data suggested that definitions of “normal” ranges of BMI and WC need to be revised for Asian Indians
28 Jul 2005
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.
01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: An initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI is described.
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder for which currently there is no accepted definition. Having a uniform standard for diagnosing and classifying AKI would enhance our ability to manage these patients. Future clinical and translational research in AKI will require collaborative networks of investigators drawn from various disciplines, dissemination of information via multidisciplinary joint conferences and publications, and improved translation of knowledge from pre-clinical research. We describe an initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI. Members representing key societies in critical care and nephrology along with additional experts in adult and pediatric AKI participated in a two day conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in September 2005 and were assigned to one of three workgroups. Each group's discussions formed the basis for draft recommendations that were later refined and improved during discussion with the larger group. Dissenting opinions were also noted. The final draft recommendations were circulated to all participants and subsequently agreed upon as the consensus recommendations for this report. Participating societies endorsed the recommendations and agreed to help disseminate the results. The term AKI is proposed to represent the entire spectrum of acute renal failure. Diagnostic criteria for AKI are proposed based on acute alterations in serum creatinine or urine output. A staging system for AKI which reflects quantitative changes in serum creatinine and urine output has been developed. We describe the formation of a multidisciplinary collaborative network focused on AKI. We have proposed uniform standards for diagnosing and classifying AKI which will need to be validated in future studies. The Acute Kidney Injury Network offers a mechanism for proceeding with efforts to improve patient outcomes.
TL;DR: This year's edition of the Statistical Update includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association’s 2020 Impact Goals.
Abstract: Background: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovas...
01 Jan 1979