Rayees Ahmad Mir
Bio: Rayees Ahmad Mir is an academic researcher from Jiwaji University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Tagetes & Ascorbic acid. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 6 publications receiving 101 citations.
TL;DR: Results suggest that combined application of Kn and EBL regulate growth and photosynthesis in tomato more effectively than their individual application through a probable regulatory crosstalk mechanism.
TL;DR: Potassium considerably improved nitrogen metabolism under normal water supply conditions and also resulted in amelioration of the negative impact of water and osmotic stresses indicating that potassium supplementation can be used as a potential tool for enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency in wheat for exploiting its genetic potential.
Abstract: Present communication reports laboratory and pot experiments conducted to study the influence of water and osmotic stress on nitrogen uptake and metabolism in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars with and without potassium supplementation. Polyethylene glycol 6000-induced osmotic stress/restricted irrigation caused a considerable decline in the activity of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Potassium considerably improved nitrogen metabolism under normal water supply conditions and also resulted in amelioration of the negative impact of water and osmotic stresses indicating that potassium supplementation can be used as a potential tool for enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency in wheat for exploiting its genetic potential.
TL;DR: The use of potassium as a tool for mitigating the water stress induced deleterious changes in sorghum to some extent by enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency and strengthening the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components is indicated.
Abstract: This report discusses water stress-induced changes and their amelioration by added potassium in Sorghum bicolor L. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, and the activity of nitrogen metabolizing enzymes viz., nitrate reductase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were adversely affected under water stress and restricted irrigation. Osmotic as well as water stress trigger ROS production while potassium ameliorated these changes to some extent and increased the activity of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR and the contents of GSH and AsA. Water stress-induced changes ultimately reflecting on growth and yield parameters like plant height, biomass yield, grain yield, days to flowering, and days to maturity. Added potassium affected these parameters positively, both under normal and stress conditions, indicating the use of potassium as a tool for mitigating the water stress induced deleterious changes in sorghum to some extent by enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency and strengthening the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components. The results obtained here exhibited similar trends in seedlings and plants raised in sand cultures and field conditions, making them more meaningful and comprehensible.
TL;DR: This review includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.
Abstract: Importance of medicinal plants to health care has been great and herbal preparations are being produced at industrial scale particularly in developing countries. The plant products obtained have a long history of use in therapeutics, aromatherapy and food depending on the chemical constituents and their bioactivity. In the recent past, marigolds have received a great attention in scientific research, because of their multiple use and also the information available about their phytochemistry and bioactivity. Tagetes species commonly known as marigold is native to Mexico, being used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The plant is useful due to its unique phytoconstituents for a range of diseases and disorders and is reportedly effective against piles, kidney troubles, muscular pain, ulcers and wound healing and the flowers are helpful in fever, stomach and liver complaints and also in eye diseases. In India, marigold is also extensively used on religious and social occasions such as in the beautification of mandaps and pooja places; offerings at temples; marriage decorations and landscape planning due to variable size and colour of its flower. Present review is an effort to bring together the different strategies developed for the growth and cultivation of marigold, its ecophysiological and remediation relevance under a variety of environmental conditions and possible allelopathic potential. It includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the influence of leachates on the germination and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings and reported that leachate leachation of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta L. reduced germination percentage and seedling growth.
Abstract: The present investigation reports antioxidant and osmotic components of Marigold at different developmental stages and also presents influence of its leachates on germination and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Leaves of younger plants exhibit more phenols, tannins and flavonoids as compared to root and stem. Leaves and flowers of CV. PBG exhibited greater contents of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to CV. PNG. Leaves and flowers had greater free amino acids and free proline as compared to stem and root. Sodium was more in roots than in stem and leaves, whereas potassium and nitrogen are greater in leaves and stem of younger plants. Leaves of CV. PBG accumulated greater contents of potassium, nitrogen and calcium in comparison to those of PNG. Activity of PAL, SOD and CAT was greater in older plants and in flowers as compared to leaves. Non-enzymatic antioxidant components like ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione also exhibited the same trend. Nevertheless, APX, GPX and GR activity was less in the older plants and more in flowers than leaves. APX and GR activity was higher in CV. PBG than CV. PNG, whereas the activity of GPX and GST was more in PNG in comparison to PBG. The two cultivars (PNG and PBG) of Tagetes erecta L., their different parts and developmental stages showed considerable variation in their antioxidant and osmotic constituents. Accumulation of various antioxidant and osmotic components reported above may probably help Tagetes erecta L. adapt to varying environments. Higher concentration of leachates of leaves and flowers of marigold reduced germination percentage and seedling growth of wheat, whereas treatments of leachates of lower concentration somewhat stimulated the growth of wheat seedlings. Flower leachates showed more pronounced effects than leaf leachates. Further experimentation may lead to identification of allelochemicals in these leachates which may pave way for exploring the possibility of their use along with synthetic herbicides/weedicides in order to minimize the toxicity of soil caused by the use of synthetic compounds.
TL;DR: This review has documented the recent advancement illustrating the harmful effects of ROS, antioxidant defense system involved in ROS detoxification under different abiotic stresses, and molecular cross-talk with other important signal molecules such as reactive nitrogen, sulfur, and carbonyl species.
Abstract: Global climate change and associated adverse abiotic stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, waterlogging, extreme temperatures, oxygen deprivation, etc., greatly influence plant growth and development, ultimately affecting crop yield and quality, as well as agricultural sustainability in general. Plant cells produce oxygen radicals and their derivatives, so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), during various processes associated with abiotic stress. Moreover, the generation of ROS is a fundamental process in higher plants and employs to transmit cellular signaling information in response to the changing environmental conditions. One of the most crucial consequences of abiotic stress is the disturbance of the equilibrium between the generation of ROS and antioxidant defense systems triggering the excessive accumulation of ROS and inducing oxidative stress in plants. Notably, the equilibrium between the detoxification and generation of ROS is maintained by both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems under harsh environmental stresses. Although this field of research has attracted massive interest, it largely remains unexplored, and our understanding of ROS signaling remains poorly understood. In this review, we have documented the recent advancement illustrating the harmful effects of ROS, antioxidant defense system involved in ROS detoxification under different abiotic stresses, and molecular cross-talk with other important signal molecules such as reactive nitrogen, sulfur, and carbonyl species. In addition, state-of-the-art molecular approaches of ROS-mediated improvement in plant antioxidant defense during the acclimation process against abiotic stresses have also been discussed.
TL;DR: The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products as mentioned in this paper is a dictionary of the economic products of India that was published during the years 1889-99 by the Government of India.
Abstract: IT may occasion some surprise to those men of science who are ill-acquainted with India, and who so frequently express the view that Governments are unappreciative of the importance of science to learn that as far back as 1886 the Government of India arranged for Dr. George (later Sir George) Watt, professor of botany in the Presidency College, Calcutta, to prepare a "Dictionary of the Economic Products of India". The six volumes of this standard work were published during the years 1889-99. In 1908 Sir George Watt published a condensed version, "The Commercial Products of India". Whatever the defects of these 'dictionaries', they have been of inestimable value to all interested in Indian natural products. The Wealth of India A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Raw Materials, Vol. 1. Pp. xxvii+254+39 plates. 15 rupees ; 24s. Industrial Products, Part 1. Pp. xii+182+8 plates. 8 rupees ; 12s. (New Delhi : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948.)
TL;DR: The present review provides a comprehensive up-to-date knowledge on AMF and their influence on host plants at various growth stages, their advantages and applications, and consequently the importance of the relationships of different plant nutrients with AMF.
Abstract: Abiotic stresses hamper plant growth and productivity. Climate change and agricultural malpractices like excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides have aggravated the effects of abiotic stresses on crop productivity, and degraded the ecosystem. There is an urgent need for environment-friendly management techniques such as the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for enhancing crop productivity. AMF are commonly known as bio-fertilizers. Moreover, it is widely believed that the inoculation of AMF provides tolerance to host plants against various stressful situations like heat, salinity, drought, metals and extremes of temperature. AMF may both assist host plants in up-regulation of tolerance mechanisms, and prevent the down-regulation of key metabolic pathways. AMF, being natural root symbionts, provide essential plant inorganic nutrients to host plants, thereby improving growth and yield under unstressed and stressed regimes. The role of AMF as a bio-fertilizer can potentially strengthen plants’ adaptability to changing environment. Thus, further research focusing on the AMF-mediated promotion of crop quality and productivity is needed. The present review provides a comprehensive up-to-date knowledge on AMF and their influence on host plants at various growth stages, their advantages and applications, and consequently the importance of the relationships of different plant nutrients with AMF.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, students were asked to answer the following questions: • What is organic agriculture? • Where do I go to get certification in organic agriculture; • How can I get more information about organic agriculture and what is organic?
Abstract: At the end of the class, students will be able to answer the following questions: • What is organic agriculture? • Where do I go to get certification in organic agriculture? • How can I get more information about organic agriculture? What is organic? • The term " organic " is not synonymous to the terms " natural " or " eco-friendly. " • The label " natural " on foodstuff does not guarantee complete adherence to organic practices as defined by a law. • Produce food of high quality in sufficient quantity • Maintain biological diversity within the farming system • Maintain long-term soil fertility • Rely on renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems • Minimize pollution and protect the environment What is allowed in organic crop production? • New varieties of crops and agricultural technologies • Crop rotations, cover crops and natural-based products that maintain soil fertility • Biological, cultural and physical methods to limit pest expansion and increase population of beneficial insects
TL;DR: In this paper, experiments were conducted on two wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars exposed to NaCl stress with and without potassium (K) supplementation, and the results showed that added potassium led to significant improvement in growth having positive effects on the attributes including nitrogen and antioxidant metabolism.