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Regina Lundgren

Bio: Regina Lundgren is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Risk assessment & Risk management. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 14 publications receiving 8 citations.

Papers
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management as mentioned in this paper, and this legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions.
Abstract: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management. This legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions. Operations ofthe nuclear production complex ofthe former Soviet Union resulted in the accumulation ofabout 500 million cubic meters ofradioactive waste with an aggregate radioactivity about 1. 7 billion curies. This chapter describes, based on published information, the structure, composition, and arrangement ofthat production complex; sites ofnuclear weapon tests; locations for storage and disposal ofradioactive waste; and territories exposed to radioactive contamination as a result ofnominal activity and radiation accidents. As the author notes, iflarge affected areas are considered, then the historical radiation fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon testing exceeds in magnitude many ofthe sources discussed in this chapter.

3 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction.
Abstract: Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions which are used to estimate environmental releases transport and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling when conducted is used to organize and validate the measurements.

2 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States and use a risk management approach to control the process.
Abstract: Although many studies could benefit from the aspects of risk assessment described in this book to clean up Cold War legacies only a few studies have integrated risk management and risk assessment well. This chapter describes one such study—efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States. This effort addressed the human risk associated with that storage developed and implemented a process to destroy the chemical weapon energetics and agent analysed the facility and human risk associated with the destruction process and used a risk management approach to control the process. The risk analysis is an accident analysis. Risk from routine operations and mild accidents is examined in other studies and is small compared with the risk of more severe accidents.

1 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an example of how one regulatory group has approached this issue and how generic regulatory guidelines can be implemented in a manner that allows for site-specific risk-based evaluations of cleanup levels.
Abstract: In Western countries in particular, and in the growing Green movement in the Eastern countries as well, how risks are regulated is a key component to the management of Cold War legacies. Regulatory approaches that allow site-specific risk analysis must be considered because regulations and associated guidance are often the basis for defining acceptable cleanup levels. This chapter provides an example of how one regulatory group has approached this issue. The example shows how generic regulatory guidelines can be implemented in a manner that allows for site-specific risk-based evaluations of cleanup levels.

1 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: This chapter provides a tutorial on accident risk assessment which has been applied to a wide range of legacy weapons and weapon delivery systems and discusses scenario development merging of deterministic and probabilistic calculations uncertainty and facility risk management techniques.
Abstract: Another aspect of understanding the risks of Cold War legacies is through the application of probabilistic safety assessments and probabilistic risk assessments largely aimed at calculating and mitigating the risk and severity of accidents. This chapter provides a tutorial on accident risk assessment which has been applied to a wide range of legacy weapons and weapon delivery systems. It discusses scenario development merging of deterministic and probabilistic calculations uncertainty and facility risk management techniques.

1 citations


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01 Oct 1989
TL;DR: The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) as mentioned in this paper is a multi-year effort to estimate radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site.
Abstract: In a multi year effort that began in 1988, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are estimating radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Known as the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, the work has required the development of new methods and tools for dealing with unique technical and communication challenges. Scientists are doing probabilistic dose assessment -- rather than the more typical deterministic approach -- to generate dose distributions rather than single-point estimates. Uncertainties in input parameters are reflected in the dose results. Sensitivity analyses are used to optimize project resources in defining the project's scope. An independent technical steering panel directs and approves the work in a public forum. 3 figs.

30 citations

01 Jun 1994
TL;DR: The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow's milk containing 131I, and the geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of 131I deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables.
Abstract: Radiation doses to individuals were estimated for the years 1944-1992. The dose estimates were based on the radioactive-releases from the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Conceptual models and computer codes were used to reconstruct doses through the early 1970s. The published Hanford Site annual environmental data were used to complete the does history through 1992. The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow`s milk containing iodine-131. For the atmospheric pathway, median cumulative dose estimates to the thyroid of children ranged from < 0.1 to 235 rad throughout the area studied. The geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of iodine-131 deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables. For the atmospheric pathway, the-highest estimated cumulative-effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) to an adult was estimated to be 1 rem at Ringold, Washington for the period 1944-1992. For the Columbia River pathway, cumulative EDE estimates ranged from <0.5 to l.5 rem cumulative dose to maximally exposed adults downriver from the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1992. The most significant river exposure pathway was consumption of resident fish containing phosphorus-32 and zinc-65.

7 citations

01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program (RSBP) as mentioned in this paper was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration, and it aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States.
Abstract: This publication signals the closure of IIASA's Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program that started in 1995. The goal of the Program was to assess the world radiation legacy after the end of the Cold War. As such, it was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration. The Program aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States. While it was not possible for the Program to provide a complete inventory of all sites and remediation options, it did select the most significant examples. Studies of Russian sites, a comparison of these to similar sites in the United States, and ongoing studies in China helped to provide a greater perspective on the problem. The Program carried out one of the first unclassified studies of the local problems related to radioactive contamination in areas of the former Soviet Union. This led to the publication of the book "Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex", which presented the first authoritative and detailed information available outside the former Soviet Union about the nuclear inheritance of the past half-century. The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program also attracted the attention of policy makers to the problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. The directorate of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow requested IIASA to start an international study to assess the radiological risk and resulting public impact from past waste management practices at the Institute. Responding to this request, the Radiation Program performed a scoping analysis of the environmental and social impacts of the radioactive waste disposal sites on the premises of the Kurchatov Institute which, because of the growth of the city of Moscow over the last 50 years, had actually become a part of downtown Moscow. This case study, which is reported in this Research Report, is an illustration of the general problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. With this report IIASA finalizes a successful program, which was not only an example of the Institutes collaborative work across the East-West political divide but also of IIASA's commitment to addressing issues of global change.

5 citations

01 Aug 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) to estimate the worst-case case dose commitments and potential consequences of accidental releases at nuclear risk sites in the Russian Far East.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate the worst-case case dose commitments and potential consequences of accidental releases at nuclear risk sites in the Russian Far East. The nuclear risk sites of concern are near Petropavlovsk (52055'N & 158030'E) and Vladivostok (42055'N & 132025'E). The region of interest includes the territories of the Russian Far East, China, Japan, North and South Korea, State of Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Mongolia, Burma, Hong Kong, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. The transboundary region (i.e., that outside of Russia) is of primary interest because the largest doses resulting from hypothetical releases from these sites would reside in Russia and would be examined using site specific information and detailed models that were unavailable for this study. However, the transboundary region can be examined, in general, using existing information and models. The The methodology from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 1993 Report was used in this study to estimate effective dose commitments. It is recognized that this methodology is not the only acceptable manner to estimate such doses; the methodology was selected because it is independent, defensible, and, because it is based upon a multiplicative model, lends itself to a facile examination of parameter variation. The research tool used to generate the deposition data used as the basis of this study was a long-range transport model - the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) which was used to simulate the 5-d atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of Cs-137 for a one-day release at a rate of 10Bq s-1 for a total "unit hypothetical release" of 8.64x10 14 Bq. The meteorological data from the European Center for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, Reading, UK) based on the ECMWF global model forecast and analysis were used as input data for the model simulation. Using the DERMA model, the total Cs-137 depositions (i.e., sums of pertinent dry and wet deposition values) were computed for over 90% of the days in calendar year 2000. The necessary meteorological data was missing for the remaining days. In this report, Sr-90 and I-131 were radionuclides that might also have been of concern depending upon the conditions of the study. However, because of a lack of time and resources, the deposition values were not computed for these radionuclides for all calendar year 2000 days. There were Sr-90 and I-131 concentration and deposition data provided for selected days that were considered representative of the variation of the climactic condtions for the region for the year 2000. These data were used to generate simple, linear linear relationships between the unavailable Sr-90 and I-131 concentration and deposition data and the corresponding Cs-137 data. These relationships were found to be sufficiently accurate for the general examination undertaken in this report and were used to generate the necessary, unavailable data. From an examination of the appropriate source term information and deposition to dose transfer factors from both the UNSCEAR 1993 Report and the worst-case scenario, Cs-137 was determined to be the radionuclide of primary concern for this study. The Cs-137 deposition- to-dose transfer factor was dominated by the external exposure (to ground deposition) pathway. For the Petropavlovsk nuclear risk site, the maximum Cs-137 total deposition (locates in Russia) translated into a worst-case maximum effective dose commitment of 108 mSv per person for the maximum exposed individual (i.e., teen). For the transboundary region (i.e., that area outside of Russia), the maximum effective dose commitment was 5.0 mSv per teen. This maximum value was located in the State of Alaska; the maximum effective dose commitment for the Aleutian Islands was 3.3 mSv per teen. The maximum effective dose commitments in the effected U.S. territories were generally three to four times higher than those in Japan, the transboundary country with the next highest maximum dose commitments resulting from accidental releases from the Petropavlovsk risk site. For the Vladivostok nuclear risk site, the maximum Cs-137 137 total deposition (located again in Russia) translated into a worst-case maximum effective dose commitment of 102 mSv per teen. For the transboundary region, the maximum effective dose commitment for Cs-137 was 27 mSv per teen. These maximum values were located in China, which is proximate to the Vladivostok site. The maximum effective dose commitments for Japan and N. Korea are approximately the same (i.e., within a factor of two) as that for China. Note that the maximum effective dose commitments in the U.S. territories are generally more than a factor of 60 lower than those in China, the transboundary country with the highest maximum dose commitments resulting from accidental releases from the Vladivostok risk site. The maximum worst-case dose commitments corresponding to the potential Petropavlovsk and Vladivostok releases for both the regional and transboundary conditions were also compared to various annual reference levels (i.e., 0.15, 1.0, 10, and 100 mSv per person) discussed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 82 Report pertaining to practices and interventions and the annual background radiation dose (i.e., 2.4 mSv per person) provided in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report. These comparisons were conservative because the effective dose commitments computed in this report are being compared to annual reference values and background doses. The worst-case maximum dose commitments from the Petropavlovsk site for the transboundary region on over 99% of all year 2000 days studied are less than the average annual background radiation dose. For the Vladivostok releases, the worst-case maximum dose commitments are less than the average annual background radiation dose for more than 44% of all year 2000 days studied. Furthermore, the maximum dose commitments corresponding to the Vladivostok releases for more than 90% of the year 2000 days studied are less than the annual 10 mSv per person level in which interventions are rarely justified and are all less than the annual 100 mSv per person level in which interventions are almost always justifiable according to ICRP 82. Therefore, the impacts from the adjusted Vladivostok releases would be, in general, more significant than those from Petropavlovsk (even though the Petropavlovsk releases translate into the maximum, worst-case dose commitment). The more significant impacts of the potential Vladivostok releases were compounded by the fact that many more people were impacted than from the corresponding hypothetical Petropavlovsk releases. However, the dose commitments from the potential Vladivostok releases could be considered negligible when compared to the 10 mSv per person level in which interventions are rarely justified. The maximum collective dose commitments corresponding to the worst-case dose commitments were also computed. The results indicate that even though the maximum effective dose commitments from the Petropavlovsk and Vladivostok releases were similar, the larger populations impacted by the Vladivostok releases generally resulted in significantly larger collective dose commitments and thus potential mortalities than those for the Petropavlovsk releases. For example, the maximum number of additional mortalities on a regional basis resulting from the worst-case Petropavlovsk scenario would be 355 with as many as 329 in Japan, 83 in China, 18 in the State of Alaska, and 10 in S. Korea. However, for the Vladivostok releases, there could be as many as 9771 additional mortalities on a regional basis, and the additional mortalities for Japan, China, N. Korea, S. Korea, Russia, and Taiwan would be 9501, 8575, 2485, 2436, 1614, and 318, respectively. The U.S. territories and Hong Kong might have an additional two mortalities each. However, even though these mortality numbers may appear large, it should be noted that none of the transboundary values exceed 9 mortalities per 100 000 persons, which is found in N. Korea resulting from the worst-case Vladivostok scenario. Because the aggregation of doses over large areas is contrary to the recommendation of the ICRP, a series of threshold values were imposed on the worst-case results to determine whether the conclusions would change dramatically. The impact on the maximum worst-case collective dose commitments for the Petropavlovsk releases would be significan. For example, if a threshold of 1 mSv per person is imposed on the collective dose computation, then the collective dose commitment for all transboundary areas except for the U.S. territories falls to zero (and this includes Japan, which had the largest collective dose commitment). However, the impact of imposing such thresholds on the collective dose commitments from the Vladivostok releases was much less profound than that for the corresponding Petropavlovsk dose commitments; in fact, the imposition of thresholds up to 1 mSv per person had little impact on the collective dose commitments for most countries in the region of interest. Even though the impact on the collective doses related to the Vladivostok releases was small, it remains true that the worst-case impacts of the effective dose commitments for the releases from both the Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk sites were negligible when compared to metrics such as the average annual background dose and other causes of death in the affected countries.

2 citations