Other affiliations: Sofia University, University of Toronto, Agricultural Research Service ...read more
Bio: Reinhard Miller is an academic researcher from Technische Universität Darmstadt. The author has contributed to research in topics: Adsorption & Surface tension. The author has an hindex of 67, co-authored 756 publications receiving 21007 citations. Previous affiliations of Reinhard Miller include Sofia University & University of Toronto.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The presented characterization of the interfacial composition and its consequences provide a new approach for the understanding of lipase reactions at interfaces with direct impact on biotechnological and health care applications.
Abstract: Lipases are acyl hydrolases that play a key role in fat digestion by cleaving long-chain triglycerides into polar lipids Due to an opposite polarity between the enzyme (hydrophilic) and their substrates (lipophilic), lipase reaction occurs at the interface between the aqueous and the oil phases Hence, interfaces are the key spots for lipase biocatalysis and an appropriate site for modulating lipolysis Surprisingly enough, knowledge about the effects of the interfacial composition on lipase catalysis is still limited and only described by the term "interfacial quality" Recent systematic studies based on a biophysical approach allowed for the first time to show the effects of the interfacial microenvironment on lipase catalysis These studies demonstrate that lipase activity as a function of interfacial composition is more attributed to substrate inaccessibility rather than to enzyme denaturation or inactivation, as it is often hypothesized A detailed analysis of the interfacial properties of all compounds involved in triglyceride digestion revealed that lipolysis is a self-regulated reaction This feedback mechanism can be explored as a new avenue to control lipase catalysis To substantiate this hypothesis, oil hydrolysis in a model gastro-intestinal system was performed, which can be seen as an interfacial engineering approach to enzyme reactivity control The presented characterization of the interfacial composition and its consequences provide a new approach for the understanding of lipase reactions at interfaces with direct impact on biotechnological and health care applications
TL;DR: The use of surface tensiometry and rheometry of mixed protein/surfactant mixed layers is demonstrated as a new tool in the diagnostics of various diseases and for monitoring the progress of therapies.
Abstract: The adsorption behaviour of proteins and systems mixed with surfactants of different nature is described. In the absence of surfactants the proteins mainly adsorb in a diffusion controlled manner. Due to lack of quantitative models the experimental results are discussed partly qualitatively. There are different types of interaction between proteins and surfactant molecules. These interactions lead to protein/surfactant complexes the surface activity and conformation of which are different from those of the pure protein. Complexes formed with ionic surfactants via electrostatic interaction have usually a higher surface activity, which becomes evident from the more than additive surface pressure increase. The presence of only small amounts of ionic surfactants can significantly modify the structure of adsorbed proteins. With increasing amounts of ionic surfactants, however, an opposite effect is reached as due to hydrophobic interaction and the complexes become less surface active and can be displaced from the interface due to competitive adsorption. In the presence of non-ionic surfactants the adsorption layer is mainly formed by competitive adsorption between the compounds and the only interaction is of hydrophobic nature. Such complexes are typically less surface active than the pure protein. From a certain surfactant concentration of the interface is covered almost exclusively by the non-ionic surfactant. Mixed layers of proteins and lipids formed by penetration at the water/air or by competitive adsorption at the water/chloroform interface are formed such that at a certain pressure the components start to separate. Using Brewster angle microscopy in penetration experiments of proteins into lipid monolayers this interfacial separation can be visualised. A brief comparison of the protein adsorption at the water/air and water/n-tetradecane shows that the adsorbed amount at the water/oil interface is much stronger and the change in interfacial tension much larger than at the water/air interface. Also some experimental data on the dilational elasticity of proteins at both interfaces measured by a transient relaxation technique are discussed on the basis of the derived thermodynamic model. As a fast developing field of application the use of surface tensiometry and rheometry of mixed protein/surfactant mixed layers is demonstrated as a new tool in the diagnostics of various diseases and for monitoring the progress of therapies.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived asymptotic solutions of the adsorption kinetic equations for the liquid phase interface in the regions of infinitely small and infinitely great surface lifetimes (t) for the cases of one and of a few surfactants, on non-deforming and deforming surfaces, under nonstationary, stationary and quasi-stationary conditions.
Abstract: We analysed existing and newly derived asymptotic solutions of the adsorption kinetic equations for the liquid phase interface in the regions of infinitely small and infinitely great surface lifetimes (t) for the cases of one and of a few surfactants, on non-deforming and deforming surfaces, under non-stationary, stationary and quasi-stationary conditions, assuming either the diffusion adsorption mechanism or mixed adsorption mechanism. It was proved that in the region t → ∞, the adsorption barrier does not influence the dynamic surface tension σ, but the role of surface-active contaminants is significant. In contrast, in the region t → 0, the role of contaminants is small, but the adsorption barrier influences the dynamic surface tension substantially. The dynamic surface tension of sodium alkyl sulphate solutions was measured by the maximum bubble pressure method, in the t range 0.001–10 s. In the region t → ∞ we obtained good agreement of experimental results with asymptotic formulae. The diffusion adsorption mechanism of the surfactant solutions studied was confirmed and we also estimated the concentration values of the surfactant admixtures. Small additions of the more active surfactant sodium tetradecyl sulphate to sodium dodecyl sulphate substantially influences the shape of the σ—t curve in the region t → ∞, increasing (in full accordance with theoretical considerations) the tangent value of the curve inclination of the dependence of σ on t−1/2. In the regions t → 0, long-chained high molecular weight sodium alkyl sulphates adsorb according to the diffusion mechanism, whereas for sodium decyl and dodecyl sulphates the existence of the adsorption barrier was confirmed. We corroborated experimentally the absence of any influence of surfactant admixtures on the values of dynamic surface tension at t → 0.
TL;DR: In this article, the theoretical basis of adsorption kinetics is presented, taking into consideration different adorption mechanisms, and specific experimental conditions, such as liquid flow and interfacial area changes.
Abstract: Dynamic surface and interfacial tensions are the most frequently measured non-equilibrium properties of adsorption layers at liquid interfaces. The review presents the theoretical basis of adsorption kinetics, taking into consideration different adsorption mechanisms, and specific experimental conditions, such as liquid flow and interfacial area changes. Analytical solutions, if available, approximations as well as numerical procedures for direct solution of the physical models are presented. Several experimental techniques are discussed frequently used in studies of the dynamic adsorption behaviour of surfactants and polymers at liquid interfaces: drop volume, maximum bubble pressure, and pendent drop technique, drop pressure tensiometry, pulsating bubble and elastic ring method. Experimental results, most of all obtained with different technique on one and the same surfactant system, are then discussed on the basis of current theories. Finally, the role of dynamic interfacial properties in several practical applications is discussed: foam and emulsion film formation and stabilisation, rising of bubbles and drops in a surfactant solution.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of self-regulation of the surface layer composition caused by surface pressure is considered, where not only the composition, but also the thickness of the adsorption layer depends on surface pressure.
Abstract: This review presents some new equations of state and adsorption isotherms which describe mixed monolayers of surfactants possessing different molar area values, monolayers which comprise surfactants and proteins capable of reorientation or reconformation. For systems allowing reorientation and aggregation, the effect of self-regulation of the surface layer composition caused by surface pressure is considered. This effect is especially pronounced in protein adsorption layers, where not only the composition, but also the thickness of the adsorption layer depends on surface pressure. This principle was first proposed by Paul Joos for describing surface layers. The results of the proposed models have a direct impact on dynamic surface phenomena. The rate of adsorption for a diffusion-controlled mechanism depends on molecular reorientation or aggregation processes within the surface layer. For protein surface layers mainly conformational changes at the surface determine the rate of adsorption/desorption and other dynamic and mechanical properties of surface layers.
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
01 Jan 1971
TL;DR: In this paper, Ozaki et al. describe the dynamics of adsorption and Oxidation of organic Molecules on Illuminated Titanium Dioxide Particles Immersed in Water.
Abstract: 1: Magnetic Particles: Preparation, Properties and Applications: M. Ozaki. 2: Maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3): A Versatile Magnetic Colloidal Material C.J. Serna, M.P. Morales. 3: Dynamics of Adsorption and Oxidation of Organic Molecules on Illuminated Titanium Dioxide Particles Immersed in Water M.A. Blesa, R.J. Candal, S.A. Bilmes. 4: Colloidal Aggregation in Two-Dimensions A. Moncho-Jorda, F. Martinez-Lopez, M.A. Cabrerizo-Vilchez, R. Hidalgo Alvarez, M. Quesada-PMerez. 5: Kinetics of Particle and Protein Adsorption Z. Adamczyk.
TL;DR: A review of literature evidence suggests that much of the reported emulsifying capability of polysaccharides is explicable in terms of complexation or contamination with a small fraction of surface-active protein this article.
Abstract: Although traditionally associated with thickening and gelation behaviour, food hydrocolloids also influence the properties of dispersed systems through their interfacial properties. Hence, surface-active hydrocolloids may act as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilisers through adsorption of protective layers at oil–water interfaces, and interactions of hydrocolloids with emulsion droplets may affect rheology and stability with respect to aggregation and serum separation. A review of literature evidence suggests that much of the reported emulsifying capability of polysaccharides is explicable in terms of complexation or contamination with a small fraction of surface-active protein. To support this point of view, the specific cases of gum arabic, galactomannans and pectin are considered in some detail. In mixed protein+polysaccharide systems, associative electrostatic interactions can lead to coacervation or soluble complex formation depending on the nature of the biopolymers and the solution conditions (pH and ionic strength). Protein–hydrocolloid complexation at interfaces can be associated with bridging flocculation or steric stabilisation. As well as controlling rheology, the presence of a non-adsorbing hydrocolloid can affect creaming stability by inducing depletion flocculation.
TL;DR: A comparative analysis is given of the size, zeta-potential, dispersion pH, shell thickness, encapsulation efficiency, active substance release, stability and in vivo and in vitro pharmacological performances, which allows establishing criteria for selecting a method for preparation of nanocapsules according to its advantages, limitations and behaviours as a drug carrier.
Abstract: A review of the state of knowledge on nanocapsules prepared from preformed polymers as active substances carriers is presented. This entails a general review of the different preparation methods: nanoprecipitation, emulsion-diffusion, double emulsification, emulsion-coacervation, polymer-coating and layer-by-layer, from the point of view of the methodological and mechanistic aspects involved, encapsulation of the active substance and the raw materials used. Similarly, a comparative analysis is given of the size, zeta-potential, dispersion pH, shell thickness, encapsulation efficiency, active substance release, stability and in vivo and in vitro pharmacological performances, using as basis the data reported in the different research works published. Consequently, the information obtained allows establishing criteria for selecting a method for preparation of nanocapsules according to its advantages, limitations and behaviours as a drug carrier.
TL;DR: The advantages and disadvantages of the different existing immobilization strategies to solve the different aforementioned enzyme limitations are given and some advice to select the optimal strategy for each particular enzyme and process is given.
Abstract: Enzyme biocatalysis plays a very relevant role in the development of many chemical industries, e.g., energy, food or fine chemistry. To achieve this goal, enzyme immobilization is a usual pre-requisite as a solution to get reusable biocatalysts and thus decrease the price of this relatively expensive compound. However, a proper immobilization technique may permit far more than to get a reusable enzyme; it may be used to improve enzyme performance by improving some enzyme limitations: enzyme purity, stability (including the possibility of enzyme reactivation), activity, specificity, selectivity, or inhibitions. Among the diverse immobilization techniques, the use of pre-existing supports to immobilize enzymes (via covalent or physical coupling) and the immobilization without supports [enzyme crosslinked aggregates (CLEAs) or crystals (CLECs)] are the most used or promising ones. This paper intends to give the advantages and disadvantages of the different existing immobilization strategies to solve the different aforementioned enzyme limitations. Moreover, the use of nanoparticles as immobilization supports is achieving an increasing importance, as the nanoparticles versatility increases and becomes more accessible to the researchers. We will also discuss here some of the advantages and drawbacks of these non porous supports compared to conventional porous supports. Although there are no universal optimal solutions for all cases, we will try to give some advice to select the optimal strategy for each particular enzyme and process, considering the enzyme properties, nature of the process and of the substrate. In some occasions the selection will be compulsory, for example due to the nature of the substrate. In other cases the optimal biocatalyst may depend on the company requirements (e.g., volumetric activity, enzyme stability, etc).