Bio: Reza Pourgholam is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mnemiopsis & Phytoplankton. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 23 publications receiving 340 citations.
TL;DR: Monitoring for 6 years showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton, and some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophile.
Abstract: Monitoring for 6 years (2001–2006) showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton. While this decline appeared to have reduced the nourishment of sprat (also known as kilka), it seemed to have affected phytoplankton favorably mainly due to the decrease in grazing pressure. During 2001–2002, when M. leidyi abundance and biomass were at their highest levels, abundance of dinoflagellates and cyanophytes exceeded that of diatoms. Before the invasion (1996) and in some years after the invasion (2003, 2004 and 2006) diatom abundance was higher than the abundance of other groups. In September 2005, an unprecedented bloom of the toxic cyanophyte Nodularia sp. was observed in the southern Caspian Sea. Disappearance of edible zooplankton such as Eurytemora spp. was among the first changes observed after the expansion of M. leidyi in the area. Some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophore. While the biomass of some deposit feeders, such as the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and oligochaete species increased, benthic crustaceans decreased sharply in abundance during 2001–2003 and completely disappeared during 2004–2006. Iranian catches of kilka, the most abundant and widespread zooplanktivorous fish, decreased significantly in the southern Caspian Sea after 1999. Iranian landings of kilka dropped ~70% from 69,070 ± 20,270 t during 1995–2000 to 23,430 ± 12,240 t during 2001–2006, resulting in a loss of at least 125 million US dollars to the economy. There were also changes in the total catches of large predators such as the kutum and mullet, which mainly feed on kilka, between 1991 and 2006.
TL;DR: The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.
Abstract: The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.
TL;DR: Dose-dependent increases immune and hematological parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish are underlying.
Abstract: This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish.
TL;DR: Results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout.
Abstract: The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish.
TL;DR: The results showed that the length at first maturity and fecundity of R. f.
Abstract: Fish sampling were carried out using beach seines during the fishing season from early October 2006 to mid April 2007. The gonadosomatic indexes (GSI) in range and average for female and male were 0.03 to 40.28 (5.70 ± 6.48) and 0.13 to 16.71 (3.39 ± 2.33), respectively. The GSI indicated that the reproductions of R. f. kutum were occurred during March-April, with the highest average value of 6.52 for males and of 17.00 for females in April. Fifty percent of length maturity (L ) at FL = 37.78 cm was recorded. The absolute fecundity ranged from m50% 15,723 for a three-year old to 130,737 eggs for an eight-year old female, with a mean of 60435 ± 24889. The relationship between fecundity (F) and fork length (cm) was represented by the formula: Fec. = 6616FL+25916. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters was: L =67.5cm, K=0.21 year , t =-0.10 for throw population of kutum. 8 0 1 The maximum spawning migration into the rivers based on GSI occurred significantly in April but it be affected by environment of sea water layers. The results showed that the length at first maturity and fecundity of R. f. kutum reduced in southern part of Caspian Sea.
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: This computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations, but end up in harmful downloads so that people cope with some infectious bugs inside their laptop.
Abstract: Thank you for reading computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. As you may know, people have search numerous times for their favorite books like this computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some infectious bugs inside their laptop.
TL;DR: Of the 66 LMEs defined thus far that cover the world’s coastal waters and seas, trends of jellyfish abundance after 1950 (increasing, decreasing, or stable/variable) were identified for 45, with variable degrees of confidence.
Abstract: Although there are various indications and claims that jellyfish (ie, scyphozoans, cubozoans, most hydrozoans, ctenophores, and salps) have been increasing at a global scale in recent decades, a rigorous demonstration of this has never been presented Because this is mainly due to scarcity of quantitative time series of jellyfish abundance from scientific surveys, we attempt to complement such data with non-conventional information from other sources This was accomplished using the analytical framework of fuzzy logic, which allows the combination of information with variable degrees of cardinality, reliability, and temporal and spatial coverage Data were aggregated and analyzed at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) Of the 66 LMEs defined thus far that cover the world’s coastal waters and seas, trends of jellyfish abundance after 1950 (increasing, decreasing, or stable/variable) were identified for 45, with variable degrees of confidence Of those 45 LMEs, the majority (28 or 62%) showed increasing trends These changes are discussed in the context of possible sources of bias and uncertainty, along with previously proposed hypotheses to explain increases in jellyfish
TL;DR: The role of medicinal plants and their derivatives on innate and adaptive immune status as well as growth performance in fish is described.
Abstract: Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases. This article describes a wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, seeds, and spices with different forms such as crude, extracts, mixed and active compounds, used as immunostimulants and resulting in a marked enhancement in the immune system of fish to prevent and control microbial diseases. Moreover, different activity was recorded from plant parts like seeds, roots, flowers and leaves. The mode of action of medicinal plants was stimulation of the cellular and humoral immune response which was monitored through elevation in immune parameters. Various levels of immune stimulation have been shown by medicinal plants at different concentrations through injection or immersion or oral administration. However, it is critically important to determine the optimal dose to enhance the immune system of fish and avoid the risk of immunosuppression. Some medicinal plants have been used to replace the protein in fishmeal as a cheap source of protein and proved to be efficient in this respect. Medicinal plants can act as a growth promoter and immunomodulator at the same time. Further investigations should be carried out to examine the influence of those plants on fish health (including physiological and histological parameters) as a preliminary step for use in large scale in aquaculture. The current review describes the role of medicinal plants and their derivatives on innate and adaptive immune status as well as growth performance in fish.