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Author

Richard Bucala

Bio: Richard Bucala is an academic researcher from Yale University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Macrophage migration inhibitory factor & Cytokine. The author has an hindex of 119, co-authored 595 publication(s) receiving 54607 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Richard Bucala include École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne & Rockefeller University.


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TL;DR: It is reported that hyaluronan degradation products require MyD88 and both Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and TLR2 in vitro and in vivo to initiate inflammatory responses in acute lung injury and epithelial cell apoptosis after lung injury.
Abstract: Mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after acute lung injury are incompletely understood. The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is produced after tissue injury and impaired clearance results in unremitting inflammation. Here we report that hyaluronan degradation products require MyD88 and both Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and TLR2 in vitro and in vivo to initiate inflammatory responses in acute lung injury. Hyaluronan fragments isolated from serum of individuals with acute lung injury stimulated macrophage chemokine production in a TLR4- and TLR2-dependent manner. Myd88(-/-) and Tlr4(-/-)Tlr2(-/-) mice showed impaired transepithelial migration of inflammatory cells but decreased survival and enhanced epithelial cell apoptosis after lung injury. Lung epithelial cell-specific overexpression of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan was protective against acute lung injury. Furthermore, epithelial cell-surface hyaluronan was protective against apoptosis, in part, through TLR-dependent basal activation of NF-kappaB. Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury.

1,249 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Blood-borne fibrocytes contribute to scar formation and may play an important role both in normal wound repair and in pathological fibrotic responses.
Abstract: The host response to tissue injury requires a complex interplay of diverse cellular, humoral, and connective tissue elements. Fibroblasts participate in this process by proliferating within injured sites and contributing to scar formation and the long-term remodeling of damaged tissue. Fibroblasts present in areas of tissue injury generally have been regarded to arise by recruitment from surrounding connective tissue; however this may not be the only source of these cells. Long-term culture of adherent, human, and murine leukocyte subpopulations was combined with a variety of immunofluorescence and functional analyses to identify a blood-borne cell type with fibroblast-like properties. We describe for the first time a population of circulating cells with fibroblast properties that specifically enter sites of tissue injury. This novel cell type, termed a “fibrocyte,” was characterized by its distinctive phenotype (collagen+/vimentin+/CD34+), by its rapid entry from blood into subcutaneously implanted wound chambers, and by its presence in connective tissue scars. Blood-borne fibrocytes contribute to scar formation and may play an important role both in normal wound repair and in pathological fibrotic responses.

1,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide activity in vitro and in vivo and that inhibition of advanced glyCosylation with aminoguanidine preventsNitric oxide quenching, and ameliorates the vasodilatory impairment.
Abstract: Nitric oxide (an endothelium-derived relaxing factor) induces smooth muscle relaxation and is an important mediator in the regulation of vascular tone. Advanced glycosylation end products, the glucose-derived moieties that form nonenzymatically and accumulate on long-lived tissue proteins, have been implicated in many of the complications of diabetes and normal aging. We demonstrate that advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide activity in vitro and in vivo. Acceleration of the advanced glycosylation process in vivo results in a time-dependent impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Inhibition of advanced glycosylation with aminoguanidine prevents nitric oxide quenching, and ameliorates the vasodilatory impairment. These results implicate advanced glycosylation products as important modulators of nitric oxide activity and endothelium-dependent relaxation.

1,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Sep 1995-Nature
TL;DR: The unexpected finding that low con-centrations of glucocorticoids induce rather than inhibit MIF production from macrophages is reported, identifying a unique counter-regulatory system that functions to control inflammatory and immune responses.
Abstract: Glucocorticoid hormones are important for vital functions and act to modulate inflammatory and immune responses. Yet, in contrast to other hormonal systems, no endogenous mediators have been identified that can directly counter-regulate their potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Recent investigations of the protein macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was discovered originally to be a T-lymphocyte-derived factor, have established it to be a pro-inflammatory pituitary and macrophage cytokine and a critical mediator of septic shock. Here we report the unexpected finding that low concentrations of glucocorticoids induce rather than inhibit MIF production from macrophages. MIF then acts to override glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of cytokine secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes and to overcome glucocorticoid protection against lethal endotoxaemia. These observations identify a unique counter-regulatory system that functions to control inflammatory and immune responses.

1,097 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Targeting MIF in individuals with manifest atherosclerosis can potentially be used to treat this condition and displays chemokine-like functions and acts as a major regulator of inflammatory cell recruitment and atherogenesis.
Abstract: The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases and atherogenesis. We identify the chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 as functional receptors for MIF. MIF triggered G αi- and integrin-dependent arrest and chemotaxis of monocytes and T cells, rapid integrin activation and calcium influx through CXCR2 or CXCR4. MIF competed with cognate ligands for CXCR4 and CXCR2 binding, and directly bound to CXCR2. CXCR2 and CD74 formed a receptor complex, and monocyte arrest elicited by MIF in inflamed or atherosclerotic arteries involved both CXCR2 and CD74. In vivo, Mif deficiency impaired monocyte adhesion to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis-prone mice, and MIF-induced leukocyte recruitment required Il8rb (which encodes Cxcr2). Blockade of Mif but not of canonical ligands of Cxcr2 or Cxcr4 in mice with advanced atherosclerosis led to plaque regression and reduced monocyte and T-cell content in plaques. By activating both CXCR2 and CXCR4, MIF displays chemokine-like functions and acts as a major regulator of inflammatory cell recruitment and atherogenesis. Targeting MIF in individuals with manifest atherosclerosis can potentially be used to treat this condition. © 2007 Nature Publishing Group.

1,000 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Apr 1999-Science
TL;DR: Adult stem cells isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages.
Abstract: Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.

19,560 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations