Richard Child Hill
Bio: Richard Child Hill is an academic researcher from Michigan State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Developmental state & East Asia. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 22 publications receiving 957 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that Tokyo and Seoul's departure from the world city hypothesis stem from late industrialisation and especially the relationship between industrial policy and finance institutionalised in a developmental state.
Abstract: The 'world city paradigm' assumes a convergence in economic base, spatial organisation and social structure among the world's major cities. However, Tokyo, capital of the world's second-largest national economy and the world's largest urban agglomeration, departs from the world city model on most salient dimensions. Seoul, centre of east Asia's second OECD member and the region's second-largest metropolis, exhibits the same anomaly. Tokyo and Seoul's departure from the world city hypothesis stem from late industrialisation and especially the relationship between industrial policy and finance institutionalised in a developmental state. Understanding Tokyo and Seoul necessitates a different conception of the world system from the globalist version of the world city argument. World cities differ from one another in many salient respects because they are lodged within a non-hegemonic and interdependent world political economy divided among differently organised national systems and regional alliances.
TL;DR: In this paper, an investigation of data collected for a large number of metropolitan areas in 1960 reveals a number of variables associated with inequality in the distribution of fiscal resources among municipalities in metropolitan areas, including location in the South, age, size and density of the metropolis, nonwhite concentration, family income inequality, residential segregation among social classes, housing segregation by quality, and governmental fragmentation.
Abstract: The political incorporation and municipal segregation of classes and status groups in the metropolis tend to divorce fiscal resources from public needs and to create and perpetuate inequality among urban residents in the United States. An investigation of data collected for a large number of metropolitan areas in 1960 reveals a number of variables associated with inequality in the distribution of fiscal resources among municipalities in metropolitan areas. The level of income inequality among municipal governments in metropolitan areas varies directly with: location in the South; age, size and density of the metropolis; nonwhite concentration; family income inequality; residential segregation among social classes; housing segregation by quality; and governmental fragmentation. The data provide support for the argument that governmental inequality occupies a central position in the urban stratification system.
04 Dec 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of industry clusters and transnational networks in economic development in East Asia, focusing on South Korea and Malaysia, and highlight the importance of cluster policies as a policy panacea.
Abstract: List of Contributors vii Series Editors Preface x 1 Introduction: Locating Neoliberalism in East Asia 1 Richard Child Hill, Bae-Gyoon Park, and Asato Saito 2 Industry Clusters and Transnational Networks: Japan s New Directions in Regional Policy 27 Kuniko Fujita and Richard Child Hill 3 State-Space Relations in Transition: Urban and Regional Policy in Japan 59 Asato Saito 4 Developmental Neoliberalism and Hybridity of the Urban Policy of South Korea 86 Byung-Doo Choi 5 Spatially Selective Liberalization in South Korea and Malaysia: Neoliberalization in Asian Developmental States 114 Bae-Gyoon Park and Josh Lepawsky 6 Clusters as a Policy Panacea? Critical Reflections on the Cluster Policies of South Korea 148 Yong-Sook Lee 7 Moving toward Neoliberalization? The Restructuring of the Developmental State and Spatial Planning in Taiwan 167 Chia-Huang Wang 8 Neoliberalism, the Developmental State, and Housing Policy in Taiwan 196 Yi-Ling Chen and William Derhsing Li 9 Reforming Health: Contrasting Trajectories of Neoliberal Restructuring in the City-States 225 Stephen W.K. Chiu, K.C. Ho, and Tai-lok Lui 10 Detroit of the East : A Multiscalar Case Study of Regional Development Policy in Thailand 257 Richard Child Hill and Kuniko Fujita 11 Concluding Remarks 294 Bae-Gyoon Park and Asato Saito Index 303
TL;DR: In this article, a global commodity chains perspective is used to analyze the social and organizational dimensions of international trade networks, with an emphasis on the apparel industry, and the mechanisms by which organizational learning occurs in trade networks.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a framework for the analysis of economic integration and its relation to the asymmetries of economic and social development, which is more adequate to the exigencies and consequences of globalization than has traditionally been the case in development studies.
Abstract: This article outlines a framework for the analysis of economic integration and its relation to the asymmetries of economic and social development. Consciously breaking with state-centric forms of social science, it argues for a research agenda that is more adequate to the exigencies and consequences of globalization than has traditionally been the case in 'development studies'. Drawing on earlier attempts to analyse the cross-border activities of firms, their spatial configurations and developmental consequences, the article moves beyond these by proposing the framework of the 'global production network' (GPN). It explores the conceptual elements involved in this framework in some detail and then turns to sketch a stylized example of a GPN. The article concludes with a brief indication of the benefits that could be delivered by research informed by GPN analysis.
TL;DR: A critical review of the literature on territorial innovation models (industrial districts, milieux innovateurs, new industrial spaces, local production systems, etc.) is presented in this article.
Abstract: MOULAERT F. and SEKIA F. (2003) Territorial innovation models: a critical survey, Reg. Studies 37 , 289-302. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on territorial innovation models (industrial districts, milieux innovateurs , new industrial spaces, local production systems, etc.). The review is organized in two stages. First, the main features of each of these models and their view of innovation are compared. Second, their theoretical building blocks are reconstructed and evaluated from the point of view of conceptual clarity and analytical coherence. It is found that despite some semantic unity among the concepts used (economies of agglomeration, endogenous development, systems of innovation, evolution and learning, network organization and governance), territorial innovation models (TIMs) suffer from conceptual ambiguity. The latter is mainly a consequence of the way territorial innovation is theorized, i.e. in terms of technologically driven innovation and a business culture that is ma...
TL;DR: The authors argue that the long-standing categories of western/third-world cities have been translated into the apparently transnational accounts of global and world cities, and they draw attention to the emergence of an alternative set of theoretical approaches which are more inclusive in their geographical reach and which are concerned with the diverse dynamics of ordinary cities.
Abstract: Attention to global and world cities has directed the field of urban studies to the significance of international and transnational processes in shaping city economies. This article evaluates these approaches, from a position off their maps. I argue that the circulation of these approaches in academic and policy realms adversely impacts on cities which do not fall into these categories by setting up the idea of the global city as a ‘regulating fiction’, a standard towards which they aspire. It establishes a small sector of the global economy as most desirable in planning the future of cities. By contrast, mega–cities function as the dramatic ‘other’ of world and global cities, and highlight the developmentalist discourse through which most cities in poor countries are assessed as fundamentally lacking in qualities of city–ness. I argue that the long–standing categories of western/third–world cities have been translated into the apparently transnational accounts of global and world cities. Western cities continue to be the primary site of production of apparently unlocated urban theory; so–called third–world cities (and other cities off the map of the world cities cartography) are interpreted through a developmentalist lens and, where they are referred to at all, are framed in terms of ‘difference’ or irrelevance. This article draws attention to the emergence of an alternative set of theoretical approaches, which are more inclusive in their geographical reach and which are concerned with the diverse dynamics of ordinary cities. These approaches have not yet realized that they have the potential to broaden the base for theorizing about cities and, with this in mind, the article explores the potential for a more cosmopolitan urban theory. The policy stakes in this are high, and the article notes that there are important political reasons to promote the analysis of ordinary cities in the face of the persistence of ambitions in many cities to become ‘world cities‘. L’attention accordee aux villes planetaires et mondiales a oriente le champ des etudes urbaines vers l’importance des processus internationaux et transnationaux dans la configuration economique des villes. Partant d’un point situe hors de leur cartographie, l’article evalue ces approches. La circulation de celles–ci dans les spheres politiques et intellectuelles a une incidence nefaste sur les villes qui n’appartiennent pas a ces categories, car elle instaure l’idee d’une ville planetaire en tant que ‘fiction regulatrice’, norme a laquelle aspirent les villes. Un secteur restreint de l’economie mondiale est ainsi etabli comme le plus recherche dans la planification urbaine. Par contraste, les megacities fonctionnent comme l’impressionnant ‘autre’ des villes mondiales et planetaires, valorisant le discours developpementaliste selon lequel l’evaluation des villes des pays pauvres indique le plus souvent des lacunes fondamentales dans les qualites propres a une ville. Les anciennes categories de villes (Occident/tiers–monde) ont ete converties en justifications apparemment transnationales des villes planetaires et mondiales. Les villes occidentales restent le site de production principal d’une theorie urbaine manifestement non–localisee; les villes dites du tiers monde (et autres villes ignorees de la cartographie des villes mondiales) sont interpretees a travers une optique developpementaliste et, si on en parle, sont depeintes en termes de ‘difference‘ ou d’inadequation. Cet article souligne l’emergence d’un autre ensemble d’approches theoriques, plus inclusives dans leur geographie et soucieuses des diverses dynamiques des villes ordinaires. Sachant que ces demarches ne sont pas encore conscientes de pouvoir etendre la base theorique sur les villes, l’article explore la possibilite d’une theorie urbaine plus cosmopolite. Les enjeux strategiques sont serieux et il existe des raisons politiques importantes d’encourager l’analyse des villes ordinaires face aux ambitions persistantes dans de nombreuses villes de devenir les ‘villes mondiales’.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine how these transformations affect developing countries and what policy instruments are available to address the emerging imbalances in the coffee supply chain, through the lenses of global commodity chain analysis, and find that a relatively stable institutional environment where proportions of generated income were fairly distributed between producing and consuming countries turned into one that is more informal, unstable and unequal.