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Richard Foltz

Other affiliations: University of Florida, Harvard University, Brown University  ...read more
Bio: Richard Foltz is an academic researcher from Concordia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Islam & Zoroastrianism. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 44 publications receiving 751 citations. Previous affiliations of Richard Foltz include University of Florida & Harvard University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that Iran's own cultural heritage provides alternatives to wholesale adoption of Western models. But they also argue that mismanagement of water resources is the more significant cause of Iran's water crisis.
Abstract: By the summer of 2001, most of Iranhad been suffering a three-year drought, theworst in recent history. Water rationing was inplace in Tehran and other cities, and largeproportions of the country's crops andlivestock were perishing. Yet many academicsand other experts in Iran insist that the watercrisis is only partly drought-related, andclaim that mismanagement of water resources isthe more significant cause. Underlying thisdiscussion is a complex of overlapping yetoften conflicting ethical systems – Iranian,Islamic, and modernist/industrialist – whichare available to inform water policy in Iran. Areview of the various arguments about thenature of the crisis and the range of solutionsthat have been proposed, including precedentsfrom traditional Iranian water management andthe ethics of water use in Islamic law,suggests that Iran's own cultural heritageprovides alternatives to wholesale adoption ofWestern models.

124 citations

Book
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline the Islamic view of the cosmic order and review the ways an Islamic world view can be interpreted, reassessed, and applied to such environmental problems as pollution and water scarcity.
Abstract: Islam is the religion of over one billion people and is practiced in virtually every country on earth. The articulation of an Islamic environmental ethic in contemporary terms is all the more urgent because Western-style conservation efforts do not fit all cultural and philosophical traditions. This volume outlines the Islamic view of the cosmic order and reviews the ways an Islamic world view can be interpreted, reassessed, and applied to such environmental problems as pollution and water scarcity. Sections on social justice and on issues of sustainability and development look at the history and roots of the current environmental crisis; at the broader context of women's rights of equal access to both natural and social resources; and at the interconnectedness of environmental protection and the alleviation of human poverty.

103 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Silk Route and its Travellers Religion and Trade in Ancient Eurasia The Rise and Spread of Buddhism Heresies in Flight: Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism Islam and the Silk Route Ecumenical Mischief Under the Mongols A Melting Pot No More
Abstract: The Silk Route and its Travellers Religion and Trade in Ancient Eurasia The Rise and Spread of Buddhism Heresies in Flight: Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism Islam and the Silk Route Ecumenical Mischief Under the Mongols A Melting Pot No More

55 citations

Book
01 Nov 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, Islam, Muslims, and Non-human Animals: Some Facts and Definitions 8 1 Animals in Islamic Source Texts 11 2 Animals in Islam Law 29 3 Animals in Philosophy and Science 47 4 Animals in Literature and Art 65 5 Contemporary Muslim Views on 6 Towards an Islamic Vegetarianism 105 7 Muslim Attitudes Towards Dogs 129 Conclusions 145 Notes 145 Notes 153 Bibliography 173 Organizations 181 Index 184
Abstract: Preface xi Introduction: Islam, Muslims, and Non-human Animals 1 Muslims and Islam: Some Facts and Definitions 8 1 Animals in Islamic Source Texts 11 2 Animals in Islamic Law 29 3 Animals in Philosophy and Science 47 4 Animals in Literature and Art 65 5 Contemporary Muslim Views on 6 Towards an Islamic Vegetarianism 105 7 Muslim Attitudes Towards Dogs 129 Conclusions 145 Notes 153 Bibliography 173 Organizations 181 Index 184

54 citations

Book
01 Jan 1999

46 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is explained how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict.
Abstract: We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.

628 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors develop an integrative perspective on catch-and-release (C&R) by drawing on historical, philosophical, socio-psychological, biological, and managerial insights and perspectives.
Abstract: Most research on catch-and-release (C&R) in recreational fishing has been conducted from a disciplinary angle focusing on the biological sciences and the study of hooking mortality after release. This hampers understanding of the complex and multifaceted nature of C&R. In the present synopsis, we develop an integrative perspective on C&R by drawing on historical, philosophical, socio-psychological, biological, and managerial insights and perspectives. Such a perspective is helpful for a variety of reasons, such as 1) improving the science supporting successful fisheries management and conservation, 2) facilitating dialogue between managers, anglers, and other stakeholders, 3) minimizing conflict potentials, and 4) paving the path toward sustainable recreational fisheries management. The present work highlights the array of cultural, institutional, psychological, and biological factors and dimensions involved in C&R. Progress toward successful treatment of C&R might be enhanced by acknowledging the complex...

594 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the current status of water resources in Iran and recognized three major causes for the current water crisis: rapid population growth and inappropriate spatial population distribution; inefficient agriculture sector; and mismanagement and thirst for development.
Abstract: Despite having a more advanced water management system than most Middle Eastern countries, similar to the other countries in the region, Iran is experiencing a serious water crisis. The government blames the current crisis on the changing climate, frequent droughts, and international sanctions, believing that water shortages are periodic. However, the dramatic water security issues of Iran are rooted in decades of disintegrated planning and managerial myopia. Iran has suffered from a symptom-based management paradigm, which mainly focuses on curing the problem symptoms rather than addressing the main causes. This paper reviews the current status of water resources in Iran and recognizes three major causes for the current water crisis: (1) rapid population growth and inappropriate spatial population distribution; (2) inefficient agriculture sector; and (3) mismanagement and thirst for development. The country is faced with serious challenges in the water sector, including but not limited to rising water demand and shortage, declining groundwater levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing ecosystem losses. If immediate actions are not taken to address these issues, the situation could become more tragic in the near future. The paper suggests some crisis exit strategies that need to be immediately adopted to secure sustainable water resources, if Iran does not want to lose its international reputation for significant success in water resources management over thousands of years in an arid area of the world.

461 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a hydrologic model of Iran to study the impact of future climate on the country's water resources using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and calibrated using daily river discharges and annual wheat yield data at a subbasin level.
Abstract: [1] As water resources become further stressed due to increasing levels of societal demand, understanding the effect of climate change on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance in management of this essential resource. In this study, we used a hydrologic model of Iran to study the impact of future climate on the country's water resources. The hydrologic model was created using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and calibrated for the period from 1980 to 2002 using daily river discharges and annual wheat yield data at a subbasin level. Future climate scenarios for periods of 2010–2040 and 2070–2100 were generated from the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM 3.1) for scenarios A1B, B1, and A2, which were downscaled for 37 climate stations across the country. The hydrologic model was then applied to these periods to analyze the effect of future climate on precipitation, blue water, green water, and yield of wheat across the country. For future scenarios we found that in general, wet regions of the country will receive more rainfall while dry regions will receive less. Analysis of daily rainfall intensities indicated more frequent and larger-intensity floods in the wet regions and more prolonged droughts in the dry regions. When aggregated to provincial levels, the differences in the predictions due to the three future scenarios were smaller than the uncertainty in the hydrologic model. However, at the subbasin level the three climate scenarios produced quite different results in the dry regions of the country, although the results in the wet regions were more or less similar.

428 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline the parameters of an Islamic model of normative business ethics, and explain how this ethics model seeks to balance the needs of multiple stakeholders, and discuss its enforcement mechanisms.
Abstract: In spite of a renewed interest in the relationship between spirituality and managerial thinking, the literature covering the link between Islam and management has been sparse - especially in the area of ethics. One potential reason may be the cultural diversity of nearly 1.3 billion Muslims globally. Yet, one common element binding Muslim individuals and countries is normative Islam. Using all four sources of this religion's teachings, we outline the parameters of an Islamic model of normative business ethics. We explain how this ethics model seeks to balance the needs of multiple stakeholders, and discuss its enforcement mechanisms. This Islamic approach to business ethics is centered around criteria that are in common with stakeholder theory such as justice and balance, and includes unique additional criteria such as trust and benevolence.

427 citations