Author

# Richard H. Middleton

Other affiliations: Hamilton Institute, University of California, Maynooth University ...read more

Bio: Richard H. Middleton is an academic researcher from University of Newcastle. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Control theory & Linear system. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 393 publication(s) receiving 12037 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Richard H. Middleton include Hamilton Institute & University of California.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, an integrated approach to the design of practical adaptive control algorithms is presented, where many existing ideas are brought together, and the effect of various design parameters available to a user is explored.

Abstract: An integrated approach to the design of practical adaptive control algorithms is presented. Many existing ideas are brought together, and the effect of various design parameters available to a user is explored. The theory is extended by showing how the problem of stabilizability of the estimated model can be overcome by running parallel estimators. It is shown how asymptotic tracking of deterministic set points can be achieved in the presence of unmodeled dynamics. >

588 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the shift operator and its associated Z -transform can be replaced by delta operators and their associated transform, which is designated a Δ-transform.

Abstract: This paper examines some of the consequences of finite word lengths in digital control. It is shown that, in many cases of practical importance, the usual shift operator formulation is inferior to an alternative formulation which we designate the delta operator approach. This latter approach is shown to give better coefficient representation and less roundoff noise in many cases. We thus argue that the shift operator and its associated Z -transform can be replaced by delta operators and their associated transform which we designate a Δ-transform. An added advantage of this approach is that discrete designs and transforms converge to their continuous-time counterparts as the sampling rate is increased.

435 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the problem of feedback stabilization over a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constrained channel and showed that for either state feedback, or for output feedback delay-free, minimum phase plants, there are limitations on the ability to stabilize an unstable plant over an SNR constrained channel.

Abstract: There has recently been significant interest in feedback stabilization problems over communication channels, including several with bit rate limited feedback. Motivated by considering one source of such bit rate limits, we study the problem of stabilization over a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constrained channel. We discuss both continuous and discrete time cases, and show that for either state feedback, or for output feedback delay-free, minimum phase plants, there are limitations on the ability to stabilize an unstable plant over an SNR constrained channel. These limitations in fact match precisely those that might have been inferred by considering the associated ideal Shannon capacity bit rate over the same channel.

379 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the adaptive control of rigid link manipulator systems is examined and linear estimation techniques together with a computed torque control law are shown to give a globally convergent adaptive system which does not require measurements of accelerations.

Abstract: In this paper we shall examine the adaptive control of rigid link manipulator systems. Linear estimation techniques together with a computed torque control law are shown to give a globally convergent adaptive system which does not require measurements of accelerations.

373 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

12,323 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.

Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,394 citations

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TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.

Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,364 citations

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15 Oct 1995TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a model for dynamic control systems based on Adaptive Control System Design Steps (ACDS) with Adaptive Observers and Parameter Identifiers.

Abstract: 1. Introduction. Control System Design Steps. Adaptive Control. A Brief History. 2. Models for Dynamic Systems. Introduction. State-Space Models. Input/Output Models. Plant Parametric Models. Problems. 3. Stability. Introduction. Preliminaries. Input/Output Stability. Lyapunov Stability. Positive Real Functions and Stability. Stability of LTI Feedback System. Problems. 4. On-Line Parameter Estimation. Introduction. Simple Examples. Adaptive Laws with Normalization. Adaptive Laws with Projection. Bilinear Parametric Model. Hybrid Adaptive Laws. Summary of Adaptive Laws. Parameter Convergence Proofs. Problems. 5. Parameter Identifiers and Adaptive Observers. Introduction. Parameter Identifiers. Adaptive Observers. Adaptive Observer with Auxiliary Input. Adaptive Observers for Nonminimal Plant Models. Parameter Convergence Proofs. Problems. 6. Model Reference Adaptive Control. Introduction. Simple Direct MRAC Schemes. MRC for SISO Plants. Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws. Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws. Indirect MRAC. Relaxation of Assumptions in MRAC. Stability Proofs in MRAC Schemes. Problems. 7. Adaptive Pole Placement Control. Introduction. Simple APPC Schemes. PPC: Known Plant Parameters. Indirect APPC Schemes. Hybrid APPC Schemes. Stabilizability Issues and Modified APPC. Stability Proofs. Problems. 8. Robust Adaptive Laws. Introduction. Plant Uncertainties and Robust Control. Instability Phenomena in Adaptive Systems. Modifications for Robustness: Simple Examples. Robust Adaptive Laws. Summary of Robust Adaptive Laws. Problems. 9. Robust Adaptive Control Schemes. Introduction. Robust Identifiers and Adaptive Observers. Robust MRAC. Performance Improvement of MRAC. Robust APPC Schemes. Adaptive Control of LTV Plants. Adaptive Control for Multivariable Plants. Stability Proofs of Robust MRAC Schemes. Stability Proofs of Robust APPC Schemes. Problems. Appendices. Swapping Lemmas. Optimization Techniques. Bibliography. Index. License Agreement and Limited Warranty.

4,375 citations