Author

# Richard J Goldstein

Other affiliations: University of Illinois at Chicago, Tulane University, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

Bio: Richard J Goldstein is an academic researcher from University of Minnesota. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Heat transfer & Heat transfer coefficient. The author has an hindex of 56, co-authored 242 publication(s) receiving 14047 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Richard J Goldstein include University of Illinois at Chicago & Tulane University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and theoretical-numerical investigation has been carried out to extend existing knowledge of velocity and temperature distributions and local heat-transfer coefficients for naturel convection within a horizontal annulus.

Abstract: An experimental and theoretical-numerical investigation has been carried out to extend existing knowledge of velocity and temperature distributions and local heat-transfer coefficients for naturel convection within a horizontal annulus. A Mach—Zehnder interferometer was used to determine temperature distributions and local heat-transfer coefficients experimentally. Results were obtained using water and air at atmospheric pressure with a ratio of gap width to inner-cylinder diameter of 0·8. The Rayleigh number based on the gap width varied from 2·11 × 104to 9·76 × 105. A finite-difference method was used to solve the governing constant-property equations numerically. The Rayleigh number was changed from 102 to 105 with the influence of Prandtl number and diameter ratio obtained near a Rayleigh number of 104. Comparisons between the present experimental and numerical results under similar conditions show good agreement.

664 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a combined analytical and experimental study of the flow and temperature fields in the boundary layer on a continuous moving surface has been carried out, including both laminar and turbulent flow conditions.

Abstract: A combined analytical and experimental study of the flow and temperature fields in the boundary layer on a continuous moving surface has been carried out. The investigation includes both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The analytical solutions provide results for the boundary-layer veolcity and temperature distributions and for the surface-friction and heat-transfer coefficients. Measurements of the laminar velocity field are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions, thereby verifying that a mathematically describable boundary layer on a continuous moving surface is a physically realizable flow. Experimentally determined turbulent velocity profiles are also in very good accord with those of analysis. Similar agreement is found to exist for friction coefficients deduced from the data by application of the Clauser-plot technique. Temperature distribution measurements, carried out for the turbulent boundary layer, show satisfactory correspondence with analysis.

631 citations

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01 Jan 1983

TL;DR: In this article, the physical laws of fluid mechanics and their application to measurement techniques are discussed, as well as the application of these laws to flow visualization and flow visualization by direct injection.

Abstract: Contributors Preface Preface to the First Edition 1.What Do We Measure and Why? 2.Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics and Their Application to Measurement Techniques 3.Thermal Anemometers 4.Laser Velocimetry 5.Volume Flow Measurements 6.Flow Visualization by Direct Injection 7.Optical Systems for Flow Measurement:Shadowgraph Schlieren, and Interferometric Techniques 8.Fluid Mechanics Measurements in Non-Newtonian 9.Measurement of Wall Shear Stress 10.Acquiring and Processing Turbulent Flow Data Index

624 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, heat transfer and friction correlations are developed for turbulent flow in tubes having a repeated-rib roughness, based on application of a heatmomentum transfer analogy to flow over a rough surface, which was first used by Dipprey and Sabersky for sand-grain roughness.

Abstract: Heat transfer and friction correlations are developed for turbulent flow in tubes having a repeated-rib roughness. The friction correlation is based on law of the wall similarity and is the same method employed by Nikuradse for sand-grain roughness. The heat transfer correlation is based on application of a heat-momentum transfer analogy to flow over a rough surface, which was first used by Dipprey and Sabersky for sand-grain roughness. The correlations are verified with experimental data taken with 0.01 < e/D < 0.04 and 10 < p/e < 40 and covering the range 0.71 < Pr < 37.6. The correlations may be extended to a wider range of e/D by virtue of the law of the wall. The good results obtained in this study, supported by the prior work with sand-grain roughness, offer strong argument for application of the correlating methods to other roughness geometries. The success of the heat-momentum analogy correlation is compared with other methods frequently found in the literature.

593 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of hole geometry, secondary fluid density, and mainstream boundary layer thickness on the film cooling performance of secondary gas injection through discrete holes have been studied experimentally.

Abstract: Film cooling downstream of secondary gas injection through discrete holes has been studied experimentally. The influences of hole geometry, secondary fluid density, and mainstream boundary layer thickness are described. Significant improvements in the film cooling effectiveness are observed by having the coolant passages widened before the exit of the secondary fluid. The use of a relatively dense secondary fluid, as might be encountered in many applications, requires a significantly higher blowing rate to cause jet separation from the surface than when the densities of the freestream and secondary stream are the same. This results in considerably better film cooling over an important range of density ratios.

463 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented in this article, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments, and a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q 0 and frequency ω 0 of the instability.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments. Examples include patterns in hydrodynamic systems such as thermal convection in pure fluids and binary mixtures, Taylor-Couette flow, parametric-wave instabilities, as well as patterns in solidification fronts, nonlinear optics, oscillatory chemical reactions and excitable biological media. The theoretical starting point is usually a set of deterministic equations of motion, typically in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are sometimes supplemented by stochastic terms representing thermal or instrumental noise, but for macroscopic systems and carefully designed experiments the stochastic forces are often negligible. An aim of theory is to describe solutions of the deterministic equations that are likely to be reached starting from typical initial conditions and to persist at long times. A unified description is developed, based on the linear instabilities of a homogeneous state, which leads naturally to a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q0 and frequency ω0 of the instability. Type Is systems (ω0=0, q0≠0) are stationary in time and periodic in space; type IIIo systems (ω0≠0, q0=0) are periodic in time and uniform in space; and type Io systems (ω0≠0, q0≠0) are periodic in both space and time. Near a continuous (or supercritical) instability, the dynamics may be accurately described via "amplitude equations," whose form is universal for each type of instability. The specifics of each system enter only through the nonuniversal coefficients. Far from the instability threshold a different universal description known as the "phase equation" may be derived, but it is restricted to slow distortions of an ideal pattern. For many systems appropriate starting equations are either not known or too complicated to analyze conveniently. It is thus useful to introduce phenomenological order-parameter models, which lead to the correct amplitude equations near threshold, and which may be solved analytically or numerically in the nonlinear regime away from the instability. The above theoretical methods are useful in analyzing "real pattern effects" such as the influence of external boundaries, or the formation and dynamics of defects in ideal structures. An important element in nonequilibrium systems is the appearance of deterministic chaos. A greal deal is known about systems with a small number of degrees of freedom displaying "temporal chaos," where the structure of the phase space can be analyzed in detail. For spatially extended systems with many degrees of freedom, on the other hand, one is dealing with spatiotemporal chaos and appropriate methods of analysis need to be developed. In addition to the general features of nonequilibrium pattern formation discussed above, detailed reviews of theoretical and experimental work on many specific systems are presented. These include Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid, convection in binary-fluid mixtures, electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals, Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders, parametric surface waves, patterns in certain open flow systems, oscillatory chemical reactions, static and dynamic patterns in biological media, crystallization fronts, and patterns in nonlinear optics. A concluding section summarizes what has and has not been accomplished, and attempts to assess the prospects for the future.

5,723 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a general, numerical, marching procedure is presented for the calculation of the transport processes in three-dimensional flows characterised by the presence of one coordinate in which physical influences are exerted in only one direction.

Abstract: A general, numerical, marching procedure is presented for the calculation of the transport processes in three-dimensional flows characterised by the presence of one coordinate in which physical influences are exerted in only one direction. Such flows give rise to parabolic differential equations and so can be called three-dimensional parabolic flows. The procedure can be regarded as a boundary-layer method, provided it is recognised that, unlike earlier published methods with this name, it takes full account of the cross-stream diffusion of momentum, etc., and of the pressure variation in the cross-stream plane. The pressure field is determined by: first calculating an intermediate velocity field based on an estimated pressure field; and then obtaining appropriate correction so as to satisfy the continuity equation. To illustrate the procedure, calculations are presented for the developing laminar flow and heat transfer in a square duct with a laterally-moving wall.

5,560 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the history of thermal energy storage with solid-liquid phase change has been carried out and three aspects have been the focus of this review: materials, heat transfer and applications.

Abstract: Thermal energy storage in general, and phase change materials (PCMs) in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 20 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. In this work, a review has been carried out of the history of thermal energy storage with solid–liquid phase change. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: materials, heat transfer and applications. The paper contains listed over 150 materials used in research as PCMs, and about 45 commercially available PCMs. The paper lists over 230 references.

3,637 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the velocity distribution and reattachment length of a single backward-facing step mounted in a two-dimensional channel were measured using laser-Doppler measurements.

Abstract: Laser-Doppler measurements of velocity distribution and reattachment length are reported downstream of a single backward-facing step mounted in a two-dimensional channel. Results are presented for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air in a Reynolds-number range of 70 < Re < 8000. The experimental results show that the various flow regimes are characterized by typical variations of the separation length with Reynolds number. The reported laser-Doppler measurements do not only yield the expected primary zone of recirculating flow attached to the backward-facing step but also show additional regions of flow separation downstream of the step and on both sides of the channel test section. These additional separation regions have not been previously reported in the literature.Although the high aspect ratio of the test section (1:36) ensured that the oncoming flow was fully developed and two-dimensional, the experiments showed that the flow downstream of the step only remained two-dimensional at low and high Reynolds numbers.The present study also included numerical predictions of backward-facing step flow. The two-dimensional steady differential equations for conservation of mass and momentum were solved. Results are reported and are compared with experiments for those Reynolds numbers for which the flow maintained its two-dimensionality in the experiments. Under these circumstances, good agreement between experimental and numerical results is obtained.

1,550 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the experimental evidence on turbulent flows over rough walls and discuss some ideas on how rough walls can be modeled without the detailed computation of the flow around the roughness element.

Abstract: ▪ AbstractWe review the experimental evidence on turbulent flows over rough walls. Two parameters are important: the roughness Reynolds number ks+, which measures the effect of the roughness on the buffer layer, and the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the roughness height, which determines whether a logarithmic layer survives. The behavior of transitionally rough surfaces with low ks+ depends a lot on their geometry. Riblets and other drag-reducing cases belong to this regime. In flows with δ/k ≲ 50, the effect of the roughness extends across the boundary layer, and is also variable. There is little left of the original wall-flow dynamics in these flows, which can perhaps be better described as flows over obstacles. We also review the evidence for the phenomenon of d-roughness. The theoretical arguments are sound, but the experimental evidence is inconclusive. Finally, we discuss some ideas on how rough walls can be modeled without the detailed computation of the flow around the roughness element...

1,214 citations