Author

# Richard Phillips Feynman

Other affiliations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cornell University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Princeton University

Bio: Richard Phillips Feynman is a academic researcher from California Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Feynman diagram & Liquid helium. The author has an hindex of 77, co-authored 192 publication(s) receiving 58881 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Richard Phillips Feynman include Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Cornell University.

Topics: Feynman diagram, Liquid helium, Electron, Meson, Quantum

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1965-

Abstract: Au sommaire : 1.The fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics ; 2.The quantum-mechanical law of motion ; 3.Developing the concepts with special examples ; 4.The schrodinger description of quantum mechanics ; 5.Measurements and operators ; 6.The perturbation method in quantum mechanics ; 7.Transition elements ; 8.Harmonic oscillators ; 9.Quantum electrodynamics ; 10.Statistical mechanics ; 11.The variational method ; 12.Other problems in probability.

7,993 citations

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Abstract: This chapter describes the possibility of simulating physics in the classical approximation, a thing which is usually described by local differential equations. But the physical world is quantum mechanical, and therefore the proper problem is the simulation of quantum physics. A computer which will give the same probabilities as the quantum system does. The present theory of physics allows space to go down into infinitesimal distances, wavelengths to get infinitely great, terms to be summed in infinite order, and so forth; and therefore, if this proposition is right, physical law is wrong. Quantum theory and quantizing is a very specific type of theory. The chapter talks about the possibility that there is to be an exact simulation, that the computer will do exactly the same as nature. There are interesting philosophical questions about reasoning, and relationship, observation, and measurement and so on, which computers have stimulated people to think about anew, with new types of thinking.

6,119 citations

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Abstract: Non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated here in a different way. It is, however, mathematically equivalent to the familiar formulation. In quantum mechanics the probability of an event which can happen in several different ways is the absolute square of a sum of complex contributions, one from each alternative way. The probability that a particle will be found to have a path x(t) lying somewhere within a region of space time is the square of a sum of contributions, one from each path in the region. The contribution from a single path is postulated to be an exponential whose (imaginary) phase is the classical action (in units of ℏ) for the path in question. The total contribution from all paths reaching x, t from the past is the wave function ψ(x, t). This is shown to satisfy Schroedinger's equation. The relation to matrix and operator algebra is discussed. Applications are indicated, in particular to eliminate the coordinates of the field oscillators from the equations of quantum electrodynamics.

3,470 citations

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Abstract: Formulas have been developed to calculate the forces in a molecular system directly, rather than indirectly through the agency of energy. This permits an independent calculation of the slope of the curves of energy vs. position of the nuclei, and may thus increase the accuracy, or decrease the labor involved in the calculation of these curves. The force on a nucleus in an atomic system is shown to be just the classical electrostatic force that would be exerted on this nucleus by other nuclei and by the electrons' charge distribution. Qualitative implications of this are discussed.

2,644 citations

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Abstract: A formalism has been developed, using Feynman's space-time formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics whereby the behavior of a system of interest, which is coupled to other external quantum systems, may be calculated in terms of its own variables only. It is shown that the effect of the external systems in such a formalism can always be included in a general class of functionals (influence functionals) of the coordinates of the system only. The properties of influence functionals for general systems are examined. Then, specific forms of influence functionals representing the effect of definite and random classical forces, linear dissipative systems at finite temperatures, and combinations of these are analyzed in detail. The linear system analysis is first done for perfectly linear systems composed of combinations of harmonic oscillators, loss being introduced by continuous distributions of oscillators. Then approximately linear systems and restrictions necessary for the linear behavior are considered. Influence functionals for all linear systems are shown to have the same form in terms of their classical response functions. In addition, a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived relating temperature and dissipation of the linear system to a fluctuating classical potential acting on the system of interest which reduces to the Nyquist–Johnson relation for noise in the case of electric circuits. Sample calculations of transition probabilities for the spontaneous emission of an atom in free space and in a cavity are made. Finally, a theorem is proved showing that within the requirements of linearity all sources of noise or quantum fluctuation introduced by maser-type amplification devices are accounted for by a classical calculation of the characteristics of the maser.

2,094 citations

##### Cited by

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Abstract: We present a detailed description and comparison of algorithms for performing ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set. We will discuss: (a) partial occupancies within the framework of the linear tetrahedron method and the finite temperature density-functional theory, (b) iterative methods for the diagonalization of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian and a discussion of an efficient iterative method based on the ideas of Pulay's residual minimization, which is close to an order Natoms2 scaling even for relatively large systems, (c) efficient Broyden-like and Pulay-like mixing methods for the charge density including a new special ‘preconditioning’ optimized for a plane-wave basis set, (d) conjugate gradient methods for minimizing the electronic free energy with respect to all degrees of freedom simultaneously. We have implemented these algorithms within a powerful package called VAMP (Vienna ab-initio molecular-dynamics package). The program and the techniques have been used successfully for a large number of different systems (liquid and amorphous semiconductors, liquid simple and transition metals, metallic and semi-conducting surfaces, phonons in simple metals, transition metals and semiconductors) and turned out to be very reliable.

40,008 citations

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University of Udine

^{1}, National Research Council^{2}, International School for Advanced Studies^{3}, Massachusetts Institute of Technology^{4}, University of Paris^{5}, Princeton University^{6}, University of Minnesota^{7}, ParisTech^{8}, University of Milan^{9}, International Centre for Theoretical Physics^{10}, University of Paderborn^{11}, ETH Zurich^{12}, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne^{13}Abstract: QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. QUANTUM ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. QUANTUM ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and interoperable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.

15,767 citations

01 Dec 2010-

TL;DR: This chapter discusses quantum information theory, public-key cryptography and the RSA cryptosystem, and the proof of Lieb's theorem.

Abstract: Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics 3. Introduction to computer science Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6. Quantum search algorithms 7. Quantum computers: physical realization Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations 9. Distance measures for quantum information 10. Quantum error-correction 11. Entropy and information 12. Quantum information theory Appendices References Index.

14,183 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-modelling procedure called "Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072", which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of integrating discrete and continuous components into a discrete-time model.

Abstract: 6.2.2. Definition of Effective Properties 3064 6.3. Response Properties to Magnetic Fields 3066 6.3.1. Nuclear Shielding 3066 6.3.2. Indirect Spin−Spin Coupling 3067 6.3.3. EPR Parameters 3068 6.4. Properties of Chiral Systems 3069 6.4.1. Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) 3069 6.4.2. Optical Rotation (OR) 3069 6.4.3. VCD and VROA 3070 7. Continuum and Discrete Models 3071 7.1. Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072

11,599 citations

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Abstract: A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.

7,427 citations