Richard W Morris
Bio: Richard W Morris is an academic researcher from University of Bristol. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Randomized controlled trial. The author has an hindex of 91, co-authored 519 publications receiving 35165 citations. Previous affiliations of Richard W Morris include Guy's Hospital & University College London.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The development and validation of a questionnaire designed to measure selfrated disability due to back pain is described, which is short, simple, sensitive, and reliable.
Abstract: One of the problems in mounting a trial of treatment of back pain is the lack of suitable outcome measures. This paper describes the development and validation of a questionnaire designed to measure selfrated disability due to back pain. The questionnaire is short, simple, sensitive, and reliable. I
TL;DR: A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function, and these findings suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
Abstract: Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
TL;DR: To use evidence regarding both costs and outcomes of primary THR to model how much more effective newer prostheses must be to justify higher costs.
Abstract: Objectives- T identify the literature on primary total hip replacement(THR) surgery that is relevant to the question of whether prostheses differ in their medium to longer term outcomes, and to synthesise this evidence. To use evidence regarding both costs and outcomes of primary THR to model how much more effective newer prostheses must be to justify higher costs
TL;DR: A series of 115 Denham knee replacements performed between 1976 and 1981 using the earliest design of components, inserted with intramedullary guide rods is reported, finding accurate coronal alignment appears to be an important factor in prevention of loosening.
Abstract: Maquet's line passes from the centre of the femoral head to the centre of the body of the talus. The distance of this line from the centre of the knee on a long-leg radiograph provides the most accurate measure of coronal alignment. Malalignment causes abnormal forces which may lead to loosening after knee replacement. We report a series of 115 Denham knee replacements performed between 1976 and 1981 using the earliest design of components, inserted with intramedullary guide rods. Patients were assessed clinically and long-leg standing radiographs were taken before operation, soon after surgery and up to 12 years later. In two-thirds of the knees (68%) Maquet's line passed through the middle third of the prosthesis on postoperative films and the incidence of subsequent loosening was 3%. When Maquet's line was medial or lateral to this, an error of approximately +/- 3 degrees, the incidence of loosening at a median period of eight years was 24%. This difference is highly significant (p = 0.001). Accurate coronal alignment appears to be an important factor in prevention of loosening. Means of improving the accuracy of alignment and of measuring it on long-leg radiographs are discussed.
TL;DR: Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is a strong and independent risk factor for stroke in a nested case-control study within the British Regional Heart Study cohort.
Abstract: Moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia is common in the general population and has been linked with cardiovascular disease. However, there are no data from prospective, population-based studies. We examined the association between serum total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration and stroke in a nested case-control study within the British Regional Heart Study cohort. Between 1978 and 1980 serum was saved from 5661 men, aged 40-59 years, randomly selected from the population of one general practice in each of 18 towns in the UK. During follow-up to December, 1991, there were 141 incident cases of stroke among men with no history of stroke at screening. Serum tHcy was measured in 107 cases and 118 control men (matched for age-group and town, without a history of stroke at screening, who did not develop a stroke or myocardial infarction during follow-up). tHcy concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls (geometric mean 13.7 [95% CI 12.7-14.8] vs 11.9 [11.3-12.6] mumol/L; p = 0.004). There was a graded increase in the relative risk of stroke in the second, third, and fourth quarters of the tHcy distribution (odds ratios 1.3, 1.9, 2.8; trend p = 0.005) relative to the first. Adjustment for age-group, town, social class, body-mass index, hypertensive status, cigarette smoking, forced expiratory volume, packed-cell volume, alcohol intake, diabetes, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum creatinine did not attenuate the association. These findings suggest that tHcy is a strong and independent risk factor for stroke.
TL;DR: In this article, a randomized controlled trial of Aliskiren in the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Elderly people was presented. But the authors did not discuss the effect of the combination therapy in patients living with systolic hypertension.
Abstract: ABCD : Appropriate Blood pressure Control in Diabetes ABI : ankle–brachial index ABPM : ambulatory blood pressure monitoring ACCESS : Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survival ACCOMPLISH : Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTIVE I : Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation AHEAD : Action for HEAlth in Diabetes ALLHAT : Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart ATtack ALTITUDE : ALiskiren Trial In Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-renal Endpoints ANTIPAF : ANgioTensin II Antagonist In Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation APOLLO : A Randomized Controlled Trial of Aliskiren in the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Elderly People ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ARIC : Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities ARR : aldosterone renin ratio ASCOT : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial ASCOT-LLA : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid Lowering Arm ASTRAL : Angioplasty and STenting for Renal Artery Lesions A-V : atrioventricular BB : beta-blocker BMI : body mass index BP : blood pressure BSA : body surface area CA : calcium antagonist CABG : coronary artery bypass graft CAPPP : CAPtopril Prevention Project CAPRAF : CAndesartan in the Prevention of Relapsing Atrial Fibrillation CHD : coronary heart disease CHHIPS : Controlling Hypertension and Hypertension Immediately Post-Stroke CKD : chronic kidney disease CKD-EPI : Chronic Kidney Disease—EPIdemiology collaboration CONVINCE : Controlled ONset Verapamil INvestigation of CV Endpoints CT : computed tomography CV : cardiovascular CVD : cardiovascular disease D : diuretic DASH : Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Study DIRECT : DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials DM : diabetes mellitus DPP-4 : dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EAS : European Atherosclerosis Society EASD : European Association for the Study of Diabetes ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate ELSA : European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis ESC : European Society of Cardiology ESH : European Society of Hypertension ESRD : end-stage renal disease EXPLOR : Amlodipine–Valsartan Combination Decreases Central Systolic Blood Pressure more Effectively than the Amlodipine–Atenolol Combination FDA : U.S. Food and Drug Administration FEVER : Felodipine EVent Reduction study GISSI-AF : Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Atrial Fibrillation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HBPM : home blood pressure monitoring HOPE : Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment HRT : hormone replacement therapy HT : hypertension HYVET : HYpertension in the Very Elderly Trial IMT : intima-media thickness I-PRESERVE : Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function INTERHEART : Effect of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors associated with Myocardial Infarction in 52 Countries INVEST : INternational VErapamil SR/T Trandolapril ISH : Isolated systolic hypertension JNC : Joint National Committee JUPITER : Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin LAVi : left atrial volume index LIFE : Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertensives LV : left ventricle/left ventricular LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVM : left ventricular mass MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MRFIT : Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial MRI : magnetic resonance imaging NORDIL : The Nordic Diltiazem Intervention study OC : oral contraceptive OD : organ damage ONTARGET : ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial PAD : peripheral artery disease PATHS : Prevention And Treatment of Hypertension Study PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PPAR : peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PREVEND : Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease PROFESS : Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Secondary Strokes PROGRESS : Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study PWV : pulse wave velocity QALY : Quality adjusted life years RAA : renin-angiotensin-aldosterone RAS : renin-angiotensin system RCT : randomized controlled trials RF : risk factor ROADMAP : Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention SBP : systolic blood pressure SCAST : Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Candesartan for Treatment of Acute STroke SCOPE : Study on COgnition and Prognosis in the Elderly SCORE : Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STOP : Swedish Trials in Old Patients with Hypertension STOP-2 : The second Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension SYSTCHINA : SYSTolic Hypertension in the Elderly: Chinese trial SYSTEUR : SYSTolic Hypertension in Europe TIA : transient ischaemic attack TOHP : Trials Of Hypertension Prevention TRANSCEND : Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans' Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Principles The 2013 guidelines on hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology …
TL;DR: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations, and has reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-generation sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping.
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
TL;DR: This letter is in response to your two Citizen Petitions, requesting that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) require a cancer warning on cosmetic talc products.
Abstract: This letter is in response to your two Citizen Petitions dated November 17, 1994 and May 13, 2008, requesting that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) require a cancer warning on cosmetic talc products. Your 1994 Petition requests that all cosmetic talc bear labels with a warning such as \"Talcum powder causes cancer in laboratory animals. Frequent talc application in the female genital area increases the risk of ovarian cancer.\" Additionally, your 2008 Petition requests that cosmetic talcum powder products bear labels with a prominent warning such as: \"Frequent talc application in the female genital area is responsible for major risks of ovarian cancer.\" Further, both of your Petitions specifically request, pursuant to 21 CFR 1 0.30(h)(2), a hearing for you to present scientific evidence in support of this petition.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010.
Abstract: Methods We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent eff ects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. W e estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specifi c deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. Findings In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily aff ect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient defi ciencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water