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Richard Y. Bourhis

Bio: Richard Y. Bourhis is an academic researcher from Université du Québec à Montréal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Acculturation & Minimal group paradigm. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 90 publications receiving 7314 citations. Previous affiliations of Richard Y. Bourhis include University of California, Santa Barbara & McGill University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the linguistic landscape refers to the visibility and salience of languages on public and commercial signs in agiven territory or region, and is used as a marker of the relative power and status of the linguistic communities inhabiting the territory.
Abstract: Linguistic landscape refers to the visibility and salience of languages on public and commercial signs in agiven territory or region. It is proposed that the linguistic landscape may serve important informational and symbolic functions as a marker of the relative power and status of the linguistic communities inhabiting the territory. Using the theoretical framework of ethnolinguistic vitality, it was hypothesized that the experience of the linguistic landscape by members of a language group may contribute to social psychological aspects of bilingual development. Factor analysis results show that the linguistic landscape emerges as a distinct factor separate from other measures of linguistic contacts. This factor was an important correlate of subjective ethnolinguistic vitality representing perceptions of the vitality of the in-group language in various domains. The study also found relations between the Linguistic Landscape factor and degree of in-group language use, especially in institutional settings,...

1,292 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM) as mentioned in this paper proposes that relational outcomes are the product of the acculturation orientations of both the host majority and immigrant groups as influenced by state integration policies.
Abstract: The first part of this paper proposes a continuum of ideological premises that seeks to account for the broad range of immigrant integration policies adopted by Western democratic states. In the second part, a review of Social Psychological models of immigrant acculturation strategies demonstrates the need to explain more clearly the interactive nature of immigrant and host community relations. The Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM) presented next proposes that relational outcomes are the product of the acculturation orientations of both the host majority and immigrant groups as influenced by state integration policies. The model makes predictions regarding the acculturation combinations most likely to produce consensual, problematic, and conflictual relational outcomes between immigrants and members of the host community. Social psychological research is needed to test the validity of the IAM model empirically. La premiere partie de cet article propose un continuum des premisses ideologiques qui anime...

1,281 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of power, status and group numbers on intergroup behaviours and perceptions were evaluated using a variant of the minimal group paradigm (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), and the results showed that dominant group members were much more discriminatory and less parity oriented towards outgroup others than subordinate group members.
Abstract: Using a variant of the minimal group paradigm (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), this study tested the effects of power, status and group numbers on intergroup behaviours and perceptions. Subjects (N = 160) were categorized into groups that varied on status (high or low), power (dominant or subordinate) and group numbers (majority or minority) variables within a 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design. Based on their evaluations of others' creative products, subjects distributed credit points to ingroup and outgroup others using the Tajfel matrices. Results showed that dominant group members were much more discriminatory and less parity oriented towards outgroup others than subordinate group members. High status group members were more discriminatory and less parity oriented than low status group members. Minority group members who were dominant and of high status were highly discriminatory and were unique in showing no parity whatsoever towards outgroup others. Subordinate low status minorities did not discriminate and were exceptional in showing out-group favouritism. Relative to group status and group numbers, group power seemed more predictive of actual discriminatory behaviour. Group status accounted for the greatest variance in social identification and intergroup perceptions measures. Results also showed that social categorization was sufficient to elicit more in-group than outgroup liking amongst all group members regardless of their position in the intergroup structure. Overall, this study indicated that power, status and group numbers independently and in combination, have a strong impact on intergroup behaviours and perceptions.

458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated the process of speech accommodation between bilinguals from two ethnolinguistic groups and found that the greater the effort in accommodation that a bilingual speaker of one group was perceived to put into his message, the more favourably he would be perceived by listeners from another ethnic group, and also the more effort they in turn would put into accommodating back to him.
Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the process of speech accommodation between bilinguals from two ethnolinguistic groups. It was hypothesized that the greater the amount of effort in accommodation that a bilingual speaker of one group was perceived to put into his message, the more favourably he would be perceived by listeners from another ethnic group, and also the more effort they in turn would put into accommodating back to him. Eighty bilingual English-Canadians were divided into four groups and individually tested. Ss heard on tape a French-Canadian describe a picture and they were required to sketch this while listening. Ss were made fully aware that their speaker had a choice of language for his description. The four groups heard the same male speaker describe the drawing but each

433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a questionnaire designed to assess how group members subjectively perceive their own group position relative to salient outgroups on important "vitality" dimensions.
Abstract: Group ‘vitality’ was recently proposed as a framework for objectively categorizing ethnolinguistic groups in terms of their ability to behave as distinctive collective entities in intergroup settings (Giles, Bourhis & Taylor, 1977). ‘Objective’ accounts of group vitality using status, demographic and institutional support data gathered from secondary sources appear a useful tool for comparing ethnolinguistic groups in cross‐cultural research. This article describes a new questionnaire designed to assess how group members subjectively perceive their owngroup position relative to salient outgroups on important ‘vitality’ dimensions. Group members’ ‘subjective’ vitality perceptions may be as important in determining interethnic behaviours as the Group's objectively assessed vitality. The article includes a discussion of how ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ vitality information can be combined to better account for the dynamics of interethnic relations in multilingual and multicultural settings.

367 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
09 Jan 2004
TL;DR: A theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory is presented in this article. But the analysis is limited to the case where the salient dimensions of the intergroup differentiation are those involving scarce resources.
Abstract: This chapter presents an outline of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory. Much of the work on the social psychology of intergroup relations has focused on patterns of individual prejudices and discrimination and on the motivational sequences of interpersonal interaction. The intensity of explicit intergroup conflicts of interests is closely related in human cultures to the degree of opprobrium attached to the notion of "renegade" or "traitor." The basic and highly reliable finding is that the trivial, ad hoc intergroup categorization leads to in-group favoritism and discrimination against the out-group. Many orthodox definitions of "social groups" are unduly restrictive when applied to the context of intergroup relations. The equation of social competition and intergroup conflict rests on the assumptions concerning an "ideal type" of social stratification in which the salient dimensions of intergroup differentiation are those involving scarce resources.

14,812 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the scope and range of ethnocentrism in group behavior is discussed. But the focus is on the individual and not on the group as a whole, rather than the entire group.
Abstract: INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES IN INTERGROUP BEHAVIOR 3 From Individual to Group Impressions 3 GROUP MEMBERSHIP AND INTERGROUP BEHAVIOR 7 The Scope and Range of Ethnocentrism 8 The Development of Ethnocentrism 9 Intergroup Conflict and Competition 12 Interpersonal and intergroup behavior 13 Intergroup conflict and group cohesion 15 Power and status in intergroup behavior 16 Social Categorization a d Intergroup Behavior 20 Social categorization: cognitions, values, and groups 20 Social categorization a d intergroup discrimination 23 Social identity and social comparison 24 THE REDUCTION FINTERGROUP DISCRIMINATION 27 Intergroup Cooperation and Superordinate Goals " 28 Intergroup Contact. 28 Multigroup Membership and "lndividualizat~’on" of the Outgroup 29 SUMMARY 30

6,550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, self-report data from 297 alumni of an all-male religious college indicate that identification with the alma mater was associated with: (1) the hypothesized organizational antecedents of organizational distinctiveness, organizational prestige, and (absence of) intraorganizational competition, but not with interorganization competition, the hypothesized individual antecedent of satisfaction with the organization, tenure as students, and sentimentality, not with recency of attendance, number of schools attended, or the existence of a mentor, and hypothesized outcomes of making financial contributions, willingness to
Abstract: Summary Organizational identification is defined as a perceived oneness with an organization and the experience of the organization's successes and failures as one's own. While identification is considered important to the organization, it has not been clearly operationalized. The current study tests a proposed model of organizational identification. Self-report data from 297 alumni of an all-male religious college indicate that identification with the alma mater was associated with: (1) the hypothesized organizational antecedents of organizational distinctiveness, organizational prestige, and (absence of) intraorganizational competition, but not with interorganizational competition, (2) the hypothesized individual antecedents of satisfaction with the organization, tenure as students, and sentimentality, but not with recency of attendance, number of schools attended, or the existence of a mentor, and (3) the hypothesized outcomes of making financial contributions, willingness to advise one's offspring and others to attend the college, and participating in various school functions. The findings provide direction for academic administrators seeking to increase alumni support, as well as for corporate managers concerned about the loyalty of workers in an era of mergers and takeovers.

4,726 citations

Book
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a theory of intergroup relations from visiousness to viciousness, and the psychology of group dominance, as well as the dynamics of the criminal justice system.
Abstract: Part I. From There to Here - Theoretical Background: 1. From visiousness to viciousness: theories of intergroup relations 2. Social dominance theory as a new synthesis Part II. Oppression and its Psycho-Ideological Elements: 3. The psychology of group dominance: social dominance orientation 4. Let's both agree that you're really stupid: the power of consensual ideology Part III. The Circle of Oppression - The Myriad Expressions of Institutional Discrimination: 5. You stay in your part of town and I'll stay in mine: discrimination in the housing and retail markets 6. They're just too lazy to work: discrimination in the labor market 7. They're just mentally and physically unfit: discrimination in education and health care 8. The more of 'them' in prison, the better: institutional terror, social control and the dynamics of the criminal justice system Part IV. Oppression as a Cooperative Game: 9. Social hierarchy and asymmetrical group behavior: social hierarchy and group difference in behavior 10. Sex and power: the intersecting political psychologies of patriarchy and empty-set hierarchy 11. Epilogue.

3,970 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of 70 studies of ethnic identity published in refereed journals since 1972 discusses the ways in which ethnic identity has been defined and conceptualized, the components that have been measured, and empirical findings.
Abstract: Ethnic identity is central to the psychological functioning of members of ethnic and racial minority groups, but research on the topic is fragmentary and inconclusive. This article is a review of 70 studies of ethnic identity published in refereed journals since 1972. The author discusses the ways in which ethnic identity has been defined and conceptualized, the components that have been measured, and empirical findings. The task of understanding ethnic identity is complicated because the uniqueness that distinguishes each group makes it difficult to draw general conclusions. A focus on the common elements that apply across groups could lead to a better understanding of ethnic identity.

3,566 citations