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Riddhika Kalle

Bio: Riddhika Kalle is an academic researcher from University of KwaZulu-Natal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Habitat. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 42 publications receiving 702 citations. Previous affiliations of Riddhika Kalle include Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History & Wildlife Institute of India.
Topics: Population, Habitat, Occupancy, Leopard, Panthera


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that resource partitioning in large carnivores by activity and spatial use of their principal prey governs spatio-temporal separation inLarge carnivores.
Abstract: Spatio-temporal partitioning is a viable mechanism for minimizing resource competition among sympatric species. The occurrence of sympatric large carnivores – tiger Panthera tigris, leopard Panthera pardus and dhole Cuon alpinus – in forests of the Indian subcontinent is complemented with high dietary overlap. We characterized temporal and spatial patterns of large carnivores with major prey species using photo-captures from 50 camera trap stations in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during 2008–2010. We tested whether major prey species' activity and spatial use acted as drivers for coexistence among large carnivores. Tiger exhibited cathemeral activity in the night and is spatially correlated with sambar and gaur, supporting hypotheses related to large-sized prey. Leopard was active throughout the day and is spatially correlated with almost all prey species with no active separation from tiger. Dhole exhibited diurnal activity and spatial use in relation to chital and avoided felids to a certain extent. Leopard exhibited spatial correlation with tiger and dhole, while tiger did not correlate with dhole. Leopard exhibited relatively broader temporal and spatial tolerance due to its generalist nature, which permits opportunistic exploitation of resources. This supports the hypothesis that predators actively used areas at the same time as their principal prey species depending upon their body size and morphological adaptation. We conclude that resource partitioning in large carnivores by activity and spatial use of their principal prey governs spatio-temporal separation in large carnivores.

102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the density of tiger Panthera tigris and leopard Panthera pardus was estimated using photographic capture-recapture sampling in a tropical deciduous forest of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India, from November 2008 to February 2009.
Abstract: Density of tiger Panthera tigris and leopard Panthera pardus was estimated using photographic capture–recapture sampling in a tropical deciduous forest of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India, from November 2008 to February 2009. A total of 2,000 camera trap nights for 100 days yielded 19 tigers and 29 leopards within an intensive sampling area of 107 km2. Population size of tiger from closed population estimator model Mb Zippin was 19 tigers (SE = ±0.9) and for leopards Mh Jackknife estimated 53 (SE = ±11) individuals. Spatially explicit maximum likelihood and Bayesian model estimates were 8.31 (SE = ±2.73) and 8.9 (SE = ±2.56) per 100 km2 for tigers and 13.17 (SE = ±3.15) and 13.01 (SE = ±2.31) per 100 km2 for leopards, respectively. Tiger density for MMDM models ranged from 6.07 (SE = ±1.74) to 9.72 (SE = ±2.94) per 100 km2 and leopard density ranged from 13.41 (SE = ±2.67) to 28.91 (SE = ±7.22) per 100 km2. Spatially explicit models were more appropriate as they handle information at capture locations in a more specific manner than some generalizations assumed in the classical approach. Results revealed high density of tiger and leopard in Mudumalai which is unusual for other high density tiger areas. The tiger population in Mudumalai is a part of the largest population at present in India and a source for the surrounding Reserved Forest.

66 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in southern India.
Abstract: Due to their secretive habits, predicting the pattern of spatial distribution of small carnivores has been typically challenging, yet for conservation management it is essential to understand the association between this group of animals and environmental factors We applied maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to build distribution models and identify environmental predictors including bioclimatic variables, forest and land cover type, topography, vegetation index and anthropogenic variables for six small carnivore species in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Species occurrence records were collated from camera-traps and vehicle transects during the years 2010 and 2011 We used the average training gain from forty model runs for each species to select the best set of predictors The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC) ranged from 081 to 093 for the training data and 072 to 087 for the test data In habitat models for F chaus, P hermaphroditus, and H smithii “distance to village” and precipitation of the warmest quarter emerged as some of the most important variables “Distance to village” and aspect were important for V indica while “distance to village” and precipitation of the coldest quarter were significant for H vitticollis “Distance to village”, precipitation of the warmest quarter and land cover were influential variables in the distribution of H edwardsii The map of predicted probabilities of occurrence showed potentially suitable habitats accounting for 46 km2 of the reserve for F chaus, 62 km2 for V indica, 30 km2 for P hermaphroditus, 63 km2 for H vitticollis, 45 km2 for H smithii and 28 km2 for H edwardsii Habitat heterogeneity driven by the east-west climatic gradient was correlated with the spatial distribution of small carnivores This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in southern India

56 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that high density of different-sized prey in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve helped facilitate coexistence of tiger, leopard and dhole, despite the high dietary overlap, although some dietary partitioning was apparent when considering prey size and prey selection.
Abstract: . We investigated dietary partitioning among tiger Panthera tigris, leopard Panthera pardus and dhole Cuon alpinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, India between January 2008 and April 2010 based on scat analyses and prey surveys. Scat analysis revealed that though the diet of the three predators consisted of 15 to 21 prey species, wild ungulates formed a major portion of their diet (88.4 to 96.7%). The three predators exhibited high diet overlap (> 61%). Prey availability, estimated from an effort of 473 km of line transects (n = 33) revealed high density of chital Axis axis (43.8 ± 10.7 (mean ± SE) individuals/km2), followed by langur Semnopithecus entellus (31.0 ± 3.8), gaur Bos gaurus (6.7 ± 1.5), giant squirrel Ratufa indica (6.4 ± 1.3), sambar Rusa unicolor (4.9 ± 0.96) and elephant Elephas maximus (4.9 ± 0.75). Mean biomass (kg/km2) of chital, gaur and sambar was 2058.6, 3015 and 656.6 respectively. In terms of biomass, tiger consumed mostly large sized prey (> 50 kg). Although leopard and dhole...

46 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study showed that large predator guilds can affect the probability of detecting subordinate mesopredators; therefore, reintroduction of large carnivores can have a cascading effect on subordinate carnivores, and it is necessary to consider this effect when planning recovery programmes for carnivore conservation.
Abstract: Top predators often have cascading effects on mesopredator communities by driving behavioural changes. Using camera-trapping surveys, we explored the site-detection probability of sympatric predators and temporal overlap and examined behavioural patterns to explore hypotheses of carnivore guild interactions between and within large and small predators in the presence/absence of lion (Panthera leo) in open and closed habitat cover. We used single-season two-species occupancy models to test inter-predator interactions at 205 camera sites spread across five Protected Areas of the Maputaland Conservation Unit, South Africa. These data showed the respective associations between the presence of large carnivores and smaller carnivores. We observed that leopard (Panthera pardus) and hyena (Crocuta crocuta) tended to avoid interference encounters, as they were less likely co-detected at the same sites. There was a decrease in detection of leopard and hyena as a function of lion presence. Small predators such as the group honey badger (Mellivora capensis)-striped polecat (Ictonyx striatus) and the slender mongoose (Herpestes sanguineus) were detected less often at cameras where leopards were detected. Detection probabilities of the group badger-polecat and slender mongoose were much higher in the closed habitat than in open habitat where leopards were detected. At camera sites where hyenas were detected, badger-polecat and genet (Genetta tigrina) detection probability was much higher in the closed habitat than open habitat. Slender mongoose overlapped less temporally with large predators while others did not. Our study showed that large predator guilds can affect the probability of detecting subordinate mesopredators; therefore, reintroduction of large carnivores can have a cascading effect on subordinate carnivores, and it is necessary to consider this effect when planning recovery programmes for carnivore conservation. We think this study is of importance and interest as top predators often shape mesopredator communities by inducing apparent avoidance behaviour based on associations between the presence of large carnivores and smaller carnivores. As a consequence, smaller predators use closed habitat to minimize the risk of larger predators due to intraguild interference interaction. We explored behavioural patterns of sympatric predators’ site detection probability and temporal overlap and examined hypotheses about carnivore guild interactions between leopard and spotted hyena, these two and small predators with and without lion in open and closed habitat cover. Reintroduction of one carnivore population can have cascading effects on the other, and this nature of consequences needs to be accounted when planning conservation or species recovery programmes. Therefore, we extended our study to explore these important aspects. Our study is novel as there are no studies documenting species interactions between/within large and small predators from co-occurrence patterns in South Africa.

40 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read, and is available in the digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading modern applied statistics with s. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite readings like this modern applied statistics with s, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their laptop. modern applied statistics with s is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read.

5,249 citations

BookDOI
TL;DR: Statistical methods in medical research, Statistical methods inmedical research, and statistical methods in scientific research are used in medicine, education and research.
Abstract: Statistical methods in medical research , Statistical methods in medical research , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز

491 citations