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Robert C. Holte

Bio: Robert C. Holte is an academic researcher from University of Alberta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Heuristic & Search algorithm. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 176 publications receiving 9527 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert C. Holte include University of Ottawa & Ottawa University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: On most datasets studied, the best of very simple rules that classify examples on the basis of a single attribute is as accurate as the rules induced by the majority of machine learning systems.
Abstract: This article reports an empirical investigation of the accuracy of rules that classify examples on the basis of a single attribute. On most datasets studied, the best of these very simple rules is as accurate as the rules induced by the majority of machine learning systems. The article explores the implications of this finding for machine learning research and applications.

1,873 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This case study relates issues as problem formulation, selection of evaluation measures, and data preparation to properties of the oil spill application, such as its imbalanced class distribution, that are shown to be common to many applications.
Abstract: During a project examining the use of machine learning techniques for oil spill detection, we encountered several essential questions that we believe deserve the attention of the research community. We use our particular case study to illustrate such issues as problem formulation, selection of evaluation measures, and data preparation. We relate these issues to properties of the oil spill application, such as its imbalanced class distribution, that are shown to be common to many applications. Our solutions to these issues are implemented in the Canadian Environmental Hazards Detection System (CEHDS), which is about to undergo field testing.

1,279 citations

01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: This paper shows that using C4.5 with undersampling establishes a reasonable standard for algorithmic comparison, and it is recommended that the cheapest class classifier be part of that standard as it can be better than under-sampling for relatively modest costs.
Abstract: This paper takes a new look at two sampling schemes commonly used to adapt machine learning algorithms to imbalanced classes and misclassification costs. It uses a performance analysis technique called cost curves to explore the interaction of over and undersampling with the decision tree learner C4.5. C4.5 was chosen as, when combined with one of the sampling schemes, it is quickly becoming the community standard when evaluating new cost sensitive learning algorithms. This paper shows that using C4.5 with undersampling establishes a reasonable standard for algorithmic comparison. But it is recommended that the cheapest class classifier be part of that standard as it can be better than under-sampling for relatively modest costs. Over-sampling, however, shows little sensitivity, there is often little dierence in performance when misclassification costs are changed.

913 citations

Proceedings Article
20 Aug 1989
TL;DR: Various approaches to this problem are evaluated, including the novel approach of using a bias different than the "maximum generality" bias, which prove partly successful, but the problem of small disjuncts remains open.
Abstract: Ideally, definitions induced from examples should consist of all, and only, disjuncts that are meaningful (e.g., as measured by a statistical significance test) and have a low error rate. Existing inductive systems create definitions that are ideal with regard to large disjuncts, but far from ideal with regard to small disjuncts, where a small (large) disjunct is one that correctly classifies few (many) training examples. The problem with small disjuncts is that many of them have high rates of misclassification, and it is difficult to eliminate the errorprone small disjuncts from a definition without adversely affecting other disjuncts in the definition. Various approaches to this problem are evaluated, including the novel approach of using a bias different than the "maximum generality" bias. This approach, and some others, prove partly successful, but the problem of small disjuncts remains open.

402 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Ninja project as mentioned in this paper is a workstation cluster environment with a software platform that simplifies scalable service construction, including base stations, units, services, and active proxies, which are transformational elements that are used for unit-or service-specific adaptation.

354 citations


Cited by
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Book
25 Oct 1999
TL;DR: This highly anticipated third edition of the most acclaimed work on data mining and machine learning will teach you everything you need to know about preparing inputs, interpreting outputs, evaluating results, and the algorithmic methods at the heart of successful data mining.
Abstract: Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques offers a thorough grounding in machine learning concepts as well as practical advice on applying machine learning tools and techniques in real-world data mining situations. This highly anticipated third edition of the most acclaimed work on data mining and machine learning will teach you everything you need to know about preparing inputs, interpreting outputs, evaluating results, and the algorithmic methods at the heart of successful data mining. Thorough updates reflect the technical changes and modernizations that have taken place in the field since the last edition, including new material on Data Transformations, Ensemble Learning, Massive Data Sets, Multi-instance Learning, plus a new version of the popular Weka machine learning software developed by the authors. Witten, Frank, and Hall include both tried-and-true techniques of today as well as methods at the leading edge of contemporary research. *Provides a thorough grounding in machine learning concepts as well as practical advice on applying the tools and techniques to your data mining projects *Offers concrete tips and techniques for performance improvement that work by transforming the input or output in machine learning methods *Includes downloadable Weka software toolkit, a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks-in an updated, interactive interface. Algorithms in toolkit cover: data pre-processing, classification, regression, clustering, association rules, visualization

20,196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of oversampling the minority (abnormal)cla ss and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)tha n only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)t han varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC)and the ROC convex hull strategy.

17,313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this article is to serve as an introduction to ROC graphs and as a guide for using them in research.

17,017 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority (abnormal) class and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.

11,512 citations