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Robert Carter

Bio: Robert Carter is an academic researcher from University College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pottery & Bronze Age. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 53 publications receiving 743 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert Carter include Durham University & UCL Institute of Archaeology.
Topics: Pottery, Bronze Age, Mesopotamia, Dilmun, Prehistory


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, archaeological excavations in Kuwait have revealed the earliest remains of sea-going boats and the distribution of Ubaid pottery as evidence for a system of maritime exchange in the Arabian Neolithic driven by status and ceremony.
Abstract: Archaeological excavations in Kuwait have revealed the earliest remains anywhere of sea-going boats. The author explains these remains and the distribution of Ubaid pottery as evidence for a system of maritime exchange in the Arabian Neolithic driven by status and ceremony.

113 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century.
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf. The history of pearling in the region is reviewed, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century. Economic data from the 18th�20th centuries CE is analysed in detail, to de fine the economic course of the pearling industry during that time, and assess the impact on human settlement in the region. The archaeological data for pearl fishing are then examined, from the 6th millennium BCE onwards, and compared to the historical evidence. The results of archaeological survey in the Abu Dhabi islands region are then taken as a case study, and changes in settlement patterns are related to the historical trajectory of the pearling industry. It is observed that the regional economy became overwhelmingly dependent on the pearl trade in recent centuries, and was increasingly subject to the demands of the global market.

97 citations

Book
01 Jun 2010
TL;DR: The Ubaid Expansion? Cultural Meaning, Identity and the Lead-up to Urbanism Workshop as mentioned in this paper was held at Grey College, University of Durham, 20-22 April 2006.
Abstract: Originally coined to signify a style of pottery in southern Iraq, and by extension an associated people and a chronological period, the term "Ubaid" is now often used loosely to denote a vast Near Eastern interaction zone, characterized by similarities in material culture, particularly ceramic styles, which existed during the sixth and fifth millennia B.C. This zone extended over 2,000 km from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Straits of Hormuz, including parts of Anatolia and perhaps even the Caucasus. The volume contains twenty-three papers that explore what the "Ubaid" is, how it is identified, and how the Ubaid in one location compares to another in a distant location. The papers are the result of The Ubaid Expansion? Cultural Meaning, Identity and the Lead-up to Urbanism, an International Workshop held at Grey College, University of Durham, 20-22 April 2006.

63 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a geochemical analysis of fragments of bituminous amalgam from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and RJ-2, Ra's al-Jinz (Oman) dates to between 53004900 and 2500-2100 BC.
Abstract: This paper presents a geochemical analysis of fragments of bituminous amalgam from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and RJ-2, Ra's al-Jinz (Oman). The fragments bear barnacles on one side and reed impressions on the other, and are thought to have been part of the coating of reed-bundle boats. The material from H3 dates to between 53004900 BC, while that of RJ-2 dates to 2500-2100 BC. Samples from both sites were geochemically compared to archaeological and ethnographic material from Kosak Shamali (northern Syria, c.5000-4400 BC), RH-5 (Oman, 4400-3500 BC) and Baghdad (central Iraq, 1900 AD). The composition of the bituminous amalgams was studied in detail. Rock-Eval Pyrolysis gave a measure of Total Organic Carbon in the samples, and allowed an initial comparison of the data sets using various parameters. Examination of the proportions of soluble and insoluble organic matter allowed an assessment of the quantity of vegetal matter added to the bitumen to make the bituminous amalgam. The composition of the Ra's al-Jinz material was studied using X-Ray Diffraction analysis and thin-section petrography, in order to assess the proportions of various minerals in the bituminous amalgams. It was concluded that the recipe for the bituminous mixture used to coat reed-bundle and wooden boats did not differ significantly from that commonly used to make 'mortar' for architectural purposes in Mesopotamia. Traces of animal fats or fish oils were not found in the analysed Ra's al-Jinz material, in contrast to previous hypotheses regarding the composition of the mixture. Comparison of the gross composition of extractable organic matter (the constituents of pure bitumen, soluble in chloroform or dichloromethane) showed the progressive effects of weathering on the samples. The isotopic composition of the bituminous material from H3 and the other sites was then compared to that of bitumen seeps and crude oils from Mesopotamia, Iran and Oman. The most significant result is that the material from As-Sabiyah originated in Kuwait, at a surface seep at Burgan, while the material from Ra's al-Jinz had a source in northern Mesopotamia.

43 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2010

301 citations

01 Jan 2002

296 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jul 2016-Science
TL;DR: It is concluded that multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations adopted farming in southwestern Asia, that components of pre-Neolithic population structure were preserved as farming spread into neighboring regions, and that the Zagros region was the cradle of eastward expansion.
Abstract: We sequenced Early Neolithic genomes from the Zagros region of Iran (eastern Fertile Crescent), where some of the earliest evidence for farming is found, and identify a previously uncharacterized population that is neither ancestral to the first European farmers nor has contributed substantially to the ancestry of modern Europeans. These people are estimated to have separated from Early Neolithic farmers in Anatolia some 46,000 to 77,000 years ago and show affinities to modern-day Pakistani and Afghan populations, but particularly to Iranian Zoroastrians. We conclude that multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations adopted farming in southwestern Asia, that components of pre-Neolithic population structure were preserved as farming spread into neighboring regions, and that the Zagros region was the cradle of eastward expansion.

235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lacustrine sediments from southeastern Arabia reveal variations in lake level corresponding to changes in the strength and duration of Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) summer rainfall and winter cyclonic rainfall as discussed by the authors.

227 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

209 citations