Author

# Robert F. Stewart

Bio: Robert F. Stewart is an academic researcher from Carnegie Mellon University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Scattering & Charge density. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 39 publication(s) receiving 8397 citation(s).

##### Papers

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a least square representation of Slater-type atomic orbitals as a sum of Gaussian-type orbitals is presented, where common Gaussian exponents are shared between Slater−type 2s and 2p functions.

Abstract: Least‐squares representations of Slater‐type atomic orbitals as a sum of Gaussian‐type orbitals are presented. These have the special feature that common Gaussian exponents are shared between Slater‐type 2s and 2p functions. Use of these atomic orbitals in self‐consistent molecular‐orbital calculations is shown to lead to values of atomization energies, atomic populations, and electric dipole moments which converge rapidly (with increasing size of Gaussian expansion) to the values appropriate for pure Slater‐type orbitals. The ζ exponents (or scale factors) for the atomic orbitals which are optimized for a number of molecules are also shown to be nearly independent of the number of Gaussian functions. A standard set of ζ values for use in molecular calculations is suggested on the basis of this study and is shown to be adequate for the calculation of total and atomization energies, but less appropriate for studies of charge distribution.

3,577 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the x-ray form factors for a bonded hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule have been calculated for a spherical approximation to the bonded atom, and the corresponding complex scattering factors have also been calculated.

Abstract: The x‐ray form factors for a bonded hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule have been calculated for a spherical approximation to the bonded atom. These factors may be better suited for the least‐squares refinement of x‐ray diffraction data from organic molecular crystals than those for the isolated hydrogen atom. It has been shown that within the spherical approximation for the bonded hydrogens in H2, a least‐squares refinement of the atomic positions will result in a bond length (Re value) short of neutron diffraction or spectroscopic values. The spherical atoms are optimally positioned 0.07 A off each proton into the bond. A nonspherical density for the bonded hydrogen atom in the hydrogen molecule has also been defined and the corresponding complex scattering factors have been calculated. The electronic density for the hydrogen molecule in these calculations was based on a modified form of the Kolos—Roothaan wavefunction for H2. Scattering calculations were made tractable by expansion of a plane wave in spheroidal wavefunctions.

2,394 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the 3s and 3p Slater-type atomic orbitals are represented by a small number of Gaussian functions and the use of these Gaussian representations in self-consistent molecular orbital calculations is presented.

Abstract: Least‐squares representations of the 3s and 3p Slater‐type atomic orbitals by a small number of Gaussian functions are presented. The use of these Gaussian representations in self‐consistent molecular orbital calculations extends our previous study to molecules containing second row elements. Calculated atomization energies, electric dipole moments, and atomic charges are shown to rapidly converge (with increasing number of Gaussians) to their Slater limits. Results of valence shell optimization studies on a series of second‐row compounds are nearly independent of the level of the Gaussian approximation, and they allow a set of standard molecular ξ exponents to be proposed.

601 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, small Gaussian expansions of Slater-type orbitals by the method of least squares are presented and the least square equations are solved by a full-matrix method.

Abstract: Small Gaussian expansions of Slater‐type orbitals by the method of least squares are presented. Expansion lengths are from one to six. Slater‐type orbitals 1s through 5g are included. The least‐squares equations were solved by a full‐matrix method. Expectation values, r−2, r−1, r, and r2 for the several expansions are tabulated. Orbital products of the small Gaussian expansions have been Fourier analyzed and are satisfactory for x‐ray scattering analysis of x‐ray diffraction data or of molecular wavefunctions comprised of extended STO basis sets.

416 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, generalized x-ray scattering factors from the evaluation of Fourier transforms of atomic-orbital products have been determined from the analysis of X-ray diffraction data.

Abstract: Generalized x‐ray scattering factors have been determined from the evaluation of Fourier transforms of atomic‐orbital products. Self‐consistent‐field atomic orbitals for first‐row atoms have been studied. Analytical scattering expressions for rapid evaluation on digital computers have been developed. Scattering factors from small GTO expansions have been compared with both Clementi and Huzinaga SCF atomic orbitals. For one‐center orbital products, the three‐set GTO atomic orbitals agree with full SCF scattering factors to within five parts per hundred or better; the four‐set GTO expansions have relative differences of 1.5% or less. For the two‐center scattering cases, three or more Gaussians per atomic orbital yield relative errors less than 1%. The generalized x‐ray scattering factors can serve as basis functions in the analysis of charge densities from x‐ray diffraction data.

164 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a contract Gaussian basis set (6•311G) was developed by optimizing exponents and coefficients at the Mo/ller-Plesset (MP) second-order level for the ground states of first-row atoms.

Abstract: A contracted Gaussian basis set (6‐311G**) is developed by optimizing exponents and coefficients at the Mo/ller–Plesset (MP) second‐order level for the ground states of first‐row atoms. This has a triple split in the valence s and p shells together with a single set of uncontracted polarization functions on each atom. The basis is tested by computing structures and energies for some simple molecules at various levels of MP theory and comparing with experiment.

12,620 citations

•

[...]

10 Mar 1986

TL;DR: In this paper, the use of theoretical models as an alternative to experiment in making accurate predictions of chemical phenomena is discussed, and the formulation of theoretical molecular orbital models starting from quantum mechanics is discussed.

Abstract: Describes and discusses the use of theoretical models as an alternative to experiment in making accurate predictions of chemical phenomena. Addresses the formulation of theoretical molecular orbital models starting from quantum mechanics, and compares them to experimental results. Draws on a series of models that have already received widespread application and are available for new applications. A new and powerful research tool for the practicing experimental chemist.

8,090 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, an extended basis set of atomic functions expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions is presented for hydrogen and the first row atoms carbon to fluorine, where each inner shell is represented by a single basis function taken as a sum of four Gaussians and each valence orbital is split into inner and outer parts described by three and one Gaussian function, respectively.

Abstract: An extended basis set of atomic functions expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions is presented for hydrogen and the first‐row atoms carbon to fluorine. In this set, described as 4–31 G, each inner shell is represented by a single basis function taken as a sum of four Gaussians and each valence orbital is split into inner and outer parts described by three and one Gaussian function, respectively. The expansion coefficients and Gaussian exponents are determined by minimizing the total calculated energy of the atomic ground state. This basis set is then used in single‐determinant molecular‐orbital studies of a group of small polyatomic molecules. Optimization of valence‐shell scaling factors shows that considerable rescaling of atomic functions occurs in molecules, the largest effects being observed for hydrogen and carbon. However, the range of optimum scale factors for each atom is small enough to allow the selection of a standard molecular set. The use of this standard basis gives theoretical equilibrium geometries in reasonable agreement with experiment.

7,677 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a method of "natural population analysis" was developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets, which seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character.

Abstract: A method of ‘‘natural population analysis’’ has been developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets. The natural analysis is an alternative to conventional Mulliken population analysis, and seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character, such as those containing metal atoms. We calculated ab initio SCF‐MO wave functions for compounds of type CH3X and LiX (X=F, OH, NH2, CH3, BH2, BeH, Li, H) in a variety of basis sets to illustrate the generality of the method, and to compare the natural populations with results of Mulliken analysis, density integration, and empirical measures of ionic character. Natural populations are found to give a satisfactory description of these molecules, providing a unified treatment of covalent and extreme ionic limits at modest computational cost.

7,590 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a modified basis set of supplementary diffuse s and p functions, multiple polarization functions (double and triple sets of d functions), and higher angular momentum polarization functions were defined for use with the 6.31G and 6.311G basis sets.

Abstract: Standard sets of supplementary diffuse s and p functions, multiple polarization functions (double and triple sets of d functions), and higher angular momentum polarization functions (f functions) are defined for use with the 6‐31G and 6‐311G basis sets. Preliminary applications of the modified basis sets to the calculation of the bond energy and hydrogenation energy of N2 illustrate that these functions can be very important in the accurate computation of reaction energies.

6,618 citations