Author

# Robert G. Gallager

Other affiliations: Bell Labs, University of Cambridge, IBM

Bio: Robert G. Gallager is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Communication channel & Block code. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 107 publications receiving 46209 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert G. Gallager include Bell Labs & University of Cambridge.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1963TL;DR: A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described and the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length.

Abstract: A low-density parity-check code is a code specified by a parity-check matrix with the following properties: each column contains a small fixed number j \geq 3 of l's and each row contains a small fixed number k > j of l's. The typical minimum distance of these codes increases linearly with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . When used with maximum likelihood decoding on a sufficiently quiet binary-input symmetric channel, the typical probability of decoding error decreases exponentially with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described. Both the equipment complexity and the data-handling capacity in bits per second of this decoder increase approximately linearly with block length. For j > 3 and a sufficiently low rate, the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length. Some experimental results show that the actual probability of decoding error is much smaller than this theoretical bound.

11,592 citations

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TL;DR: Undergraduate and graduate classes in computer networks and wireless communications; undergraduate classes in discrete mathematics, data structures, operating systems and programming languages.

Abstract: Undergraduate and graduate classes in computer networks and wireless communications; undergraduate classes in discrete mathematics, data structures, operating systems and programming languages. Also give lectures to both undergraduate-and graduate-level network classes and mentor undergraduate and graduate students for class projects.

6,991 citations

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01 Jan 1968TL;DR: This chapter discusses Coding for Discrete Sources, Techniques for Coding and Decoding, and Source Coding with a Fidelity Criterion.

Abstract: Communication Systems and Information Theory. A Measure of Information. Coding for Discrete Sources. Discrete Memoryless Channels and Capacity. The Noisy-Channel Coding Theorem. Techniques for Coding and Decoding. Memoryless Channels with Discrete Time. Waveform Channels. Source Coding with a Fidelity Criterion. Index.

6,684 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments.

Abstract: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers. The inherent flexibility of the service discipline is exploited to analyze broad classes of networks. When only a subset of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained, we give succinct per-session bounds that are independent of the behavior of the other sessions and also of the network topology. However, these bounds are only shown to hold for each session that is guaranteed a backlog clearing rate that exceeds the token arrival rate of its leaky bucket. A much broader class of networks, called consistent relative session treatment (CRST) networks is analyzed for the case in which all of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained. First, an algorithm is presented that characterizes the internal traffic in terms of average rate and burstiness, and it is shown that all CRST networks are stable. Next, a method is presented that yields bounds on session delay and backlog given this internal traffic characterization. The links of a route are treated collectively, yielding tighter bounds than those that result from adding the worst-case delays (backlogs) at each of the links in the route. The bounds on delay and backlog for each session are efficiently computed from a universal service curve, and it is shown that these bounds are achieved by "staggered" greedy regimes when an independent sessions relaxation holds. Propagation delay is also incorporated into the model. Finally, the analysis of arbitrary topology GPS networks is related to Packet GPS networks (PGPS). The PGPS scheme was first proposed by Demers, Shenker and Keshav (1991) under the name of weighted fair queueing. For small packet sizes, the behavior of the two schemes is seen to be virtually identical, and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments. >

3,967 citations

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01 May 1992TL;DR: The authors propose the use of a packet service discipline at the nodes of the network that is based on a multiplex scheme called generalized processor sharing (GPS) that is combined with leaky bucket rate admission control to provide flexible, efficient and fair use of the links.

Abstract: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing servers. When only a subset of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained succinct per-session bounds that are independent of the behavior of the other sessions and also of the network topology are given. However, these bounds are only shown to hold for each session that is guaranteed a backlog clearing rate that exceeds the token arrival rate of its leaky bucket. When all of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained, a much larger class of networks called consistent relative session treatment networks is analyzed. The session i route is treated as a whole, yielding tighter bounds than those that result from adding the worst-case delays (backlogs) at each of the servers in the route. The bounds on delay and backlog for each session are computed and shown to be achieved by staggered regimes when an independent sessions relaxation holds. Propagation delay is also incorporated into the model. >

1,348 citations

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01 Jan 1988TL;DR: Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems as mentioned in this paper is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty, and provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete andaccessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertaintyand offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provide a mechanism for making semantics-based systems operational. Specifically, network-propagation techniques serve as a mechanism for combining the theoretical coherence of probability theory with modern demands of reasoning-systems technology: modular declarative inputs, conceptually meaningful inferences, and parallel distributed computation. Application areas include diagnosis, forecasting, image interpretation, multi-sensor fusion, decision support systems, plan recognition, planning, speech recognitionin short, almost every task requiring that conclusions be drawn from uncertain clues and incomplete information.
Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems will be of special interest to scholars and researchers in AI, decision theory, statistics, logic, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and the management sciences. Professionals in the areas of knowledge-based systems, operations research, engineering, and statistics will find theoretical and computational tools of immediate practical use. The book can also be used as an excellent text for graduate-level courses in AI, operations research, or applied probability.

15,671 citations

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TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.

Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,761 citations

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the use of multiple transmitting and/or receiving antennas for single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with and without fading, and derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents of such channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas.

Abstract: We investigate the use of multiple transmitting and/or receiving antennas for single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with and without fading. We derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents of such channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas. We show that the potential gains of such multi-antenna systems over single-antenna systems is rather large under independenceassumptions for the fades and noises at different receiving antennas.

12,542 citations

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the performance of using multi-element array (MEA) technology to improve the bit-rate of digital wireless communications and showed that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available.

Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multi-element array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver.
We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon‘s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99% of the channels the capacity is about 7, 19 and 88 bits/cycle respectively, while if n = 1 there is only about 1.2 bit/cycle at the 99% level. For say a symbol rate equal to the channel bandwith, since it is the bits/symbol/dimension that is relevant for signal constellations, these higher capacities are not unreasonable. The 19 bits/cycle for n = 4 amounts to 4.75 bits/symbol/dimension while 88 bits/cycle for n = 16 amounts to 5.5 bits/symbol/dimension. Standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible. New codecs need to be invented to realize a hefty portion of the great capacity promised.

10,526 citations

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.

Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations