Author

# Robert G. Parr

Other affiliations: McMaster University, East Carolina University, Johns Hopkins University ...read more

Bio: Robert G. Parr is an academic researcher from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The author has contributed to research in topics: Density functional theory & Molecular orbital. The author has an hindex of 77, co-authored 272 publications receiving 127694 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert G. Parr include McMaster University & East Carolina University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: Numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, show that density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential give correlation energies within a few percent.

Abstract: A correlation-energy formula due to Colle and Salvetti [Theor. Chim. Acta 37, 329 (1975)], in which the correlation energy density is expressed in terms of the electron density and a Laplacian of the second-order Hartree-Fock density matrix, is restated as a formula involving the density and local kinetic-energy density. On insertion of gradient expansions for the local kinetic-energy density, density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential are then obtained. Through numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, it is demonstrated that these formulas, like the original Colle-Salvetti formulas, give correlation energies within a few percent.

77,776 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of current studies in density functional theory and density matrix functional theory is presented, with special attention to the possible applications within chemistry, including the concept of an atom in a molecule, calculation of electronegativities from the Xα method, pressure, Gibbs-Duhem equation, Maxwell relations and stability conditions.

Abstract: Current studies in density functional theory and density matrix functional theory are reviewed, with special attention to the possible applications within chemistry. Topics discussed include the concept of electronegativity, the concept of an atom in a molecule, calculation of electronegativities from the Xα method, the concept of pressure, Gibbs-Duhem equation, Maxwell relations, stability conditions, and local density functional theory.

14,008 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a property called absolute hardness eta is defined for neutral and charged species, atomic and molecular, for both hard and soft acids and bases, by making use of the hypothesis that extra stability attends bonding of A to B when the ionization potentials of A and B in the molecule are the same.

Abstract: For neutral and charged species, atomic and molecular, a property called absolute hardness eta is defined. Let E(N) be a ground-state electronic energy as a function of the number of electrons N. As is well-known, the derivative of E(N) with respect to N, keeping nuclear charges Z fixed, is the chemical potential ..mu.. or the negative of the absolute electronegativity chi: ..mu.. = (deltaE/deltaN)/sub Z/ = /sup -/chi. The corresponding second derivative is hardness: 2eta = (delta..mu../deltaN)/sub Z/ = (deltachi/deltaN)/sub Z/ = (delta/sup 2/E/deltaN/sup 2/)/sub Z/. Operational definitions of chi and eta are provided by the finite difference formulas (the first due to Mulliken) chi = 1/2(I+A), eta = 1/2(I-A), where I and A are the ionization potential and electron affinity of the species in question. Softness is the opposite of hardness: a low value of eta means high softness. The principle of hard and soft acids and bases is derived theoretically by making use of the hypothesis that extra stability attends bonding of A to B when the ionization potentials of A and B in the molecule (after charge transfer) are the same. For bases B, hardness is identified as the hardness of the species B/sup +/. Tables ofmore » absolute hardness are given for a number of free atoms, Lewis acids, and Lewis bases, and the values are found to agree well with chemical facts. 1 figure, 3 tables.« less

5,116 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the current status and trends of approximation methods (local density and generalized gradient approximations, hybrid methods) and the new light which density functional theory has been shedding on important concepts like electronegativity, hardness, and chemical reactivity index are discussed.

Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) is a (in principle exact) theory of electronic structure, based on the electron density distribution n(r), instead of the many-electron wave function Ψ(r1,r2,r3,...). Having been widely used for over 30 years by physicists working on the electronic structure of solids, surfaces, defects, etc., it has more recently also become popular with theoretical and computational chemists. The present article is directed at the chemical community. It aims to convey the basic concepts and breadth of applications: the current status and trends of approximation methods (local density and generalized gradient approximations, hybrid methods) and the new light which DFT has been shedding on important concepts like electronegativity, hardness, and chemical reactivity index.

2,327 citations

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TL;DR: The concept of electronegativity is defined in this paper as the negative of the chemical potential (the Lagrange multiplier for the normalization constraint) in the Hohenberg-Kohn density functional theory of the ground state: χ =−μ=−(∂E/∂N)v.

Abstract: Precision is given to the concept of electronegativity. It is the negative of the chemical potential (the Lagrange multiplier for the normalization constraint) in the Hohenberg–Kohn density functional theory of the ground state: χ=−μ=−(∂E/∂N)v. Electronegativity is constant throughout an atom or molecule, and constant from orbital to orbital within an atom or molecule. Definitions are given of the concepts of an atom in a molecule and of a valence state of an atom in a molecule, and it is shown how valence‐state electronegativity differences drive charge transfers on molecule formation. An equation of Gibbs–Duhem type is given for the change of electronegativity from one situation to another, and some discussion is given of certain relations among energy components discovered by Fraga.

2,279 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a semi-empirical exchange correlation functional with local spin density, gradient, and exact exchange terms was proposed. But this functional performed significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.

Abstract: Despite the remarkable thermochemical accuracy of Kohn–Sham density‐functional theories with gradient corrections for exchange‐correlation [see, for example, A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 2155 (1992)], we believe that further improvements are unlikely unless exact‐exchange information is considered. Arguments to support this view are presented, and a semiempirical exchange‐correlation functional containing local‐spin‐density, gradient, and exact‐exchange terms is tested on 56 atomization energies, 42 ionization potentials, 8 proton affinities, and 10 total atomic energies of first‐ and second‐row systems. This functional performs significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.

80,847 citations

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TL;DR: The revised DFT-D method is proposed as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

Abstract: The method of dispersion correction as an add-on to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT-D) has been refined regarding higher accuracy, broader range of applicability, and less empiricism. The main new ingredients are atom-pairwise specific dispersion coefficients and cutoff radii that are both computed from first principles. The coefficients for new eighth-order dispersion terms are computed using established recursion relations. System (geometry) dependent information is used for the first time in a DFT-D type approach by employing the new concept of fractional coordination numbers (CN). They are used to interpolate between dispersion coefficients of atoms in different chemical environments. The method only requires adjustment of two global parameters for each density functional, is asymptotically exact for a gas of weakly interacting neutral atoms, and easily allows the computation of atomic forces. Three-body nonadditivity terms are considered. The method has been assessed on standard benchmark sets for inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions with a particular emphasis on a consistent description of light and heavy element systems. The mean absolute deviations for the S22 benchmark set of noncovalent interactions for 11 standard density functionals decrease by 15%-40% compared to the previous (already accurate) DFT-D version. Spectacular improvements are found for a tripeptide-folding model and all tested metallic systems. The rectification of the long-range behavior and the use of more accurate C(6) coefficients also lead to a much better description of large (infinite) systems as shown for graphene sheets and the adsorption of benzene on an Ag(111) surface. For graphene it is found that the inclusion of three-body terms substantially (by about 10%) weakens the interlayer binding. We propose the revised DFT-D method as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

22,557 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations, are discussed.

Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.

18,972 citations

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TL;DR: A new density functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97‐D is proposed, based on Becke's power‐series ansatz from 1997, and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom‐pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C6 · R−6.

Abstract: A new density functional (DF) of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97-D is proposed. It is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom-pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C(6) x R(-6). A general computational scheme for the parameters used in this correction has been established and parameters for elements up to xenon and a scaling factor for the dispersion part for several common density functionals (BLYP, PBE, TPSS, B3LYP) are reported. The new functional is tested in comparison with other GGAs and the B3LYP hybrid functional on standard thermochemical benchmark sets, for 40 noncovalently bound complexes, including large stacked aromatic molecules and group II element clusters, and for the computation of molecular geometries. Further cross-validation tests were performed for organometallic reactions and other difficult problems for standard functionals. In summary, it is found that B97-D belongs to one of the most accurate general purpose GGAs, reaching, for example for the G97/2 set of heat of formations, a mean absolute deviation of only 3.8 kcal mol(-1). The performance for noncovalently bound systems including many pure van der Waals complexes is exceptionally good, reaching on the average CCSD(T) accuracy. The basic strategy in the development to restrict the density functional description to shorter electron correlation lengths scales and to describe situations with medium to large interatomic distances by damped C(6) x R(-6) terms seems to be very successful, as demonstrated for some notoriously difficult reactions. As an example, for the isomerization of larger branched to linear alkanes, B97-D is the only DF available that yields the right sign for the energy difference. From a practical point of view, the new functional seems to be quite robust and it is thus suggested as an efficient and accurate quantum chemical method for large systems where dispersion forces are of general importance.

18,839 citations

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TL;DR: The M06-2X meta-exchange correlation function is proposed in this paper, which is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, and is a high-non-locality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange.

Abstract: We present two new hybrid meta exchange- correlation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree–Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree–Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic and inorganometallic chemistry and for noncovalent interactions.

18,691 citations