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Robert Langer

Bio: Robert Langer is a academic researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has co-authored 2324 publication(s) receiving 326306 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 281. Previous affiliations of Robert Langer include Northeastern University & Carleton College. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): Drug delivery & Controlled release. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2007.387
Dan Peer1, Jeffrey M. Karp1, Jeffrey M. Karp2, Seungpyo Hong2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy. Advances in protein engineering and materials science have contributed to novel nanoscale targeting approaches that may bring new hope to cancer patients. Several therapeutic nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use. However, to date, there are only a few clinically approved nanocarriers that incorporate molecules to selectively bind and target cancer cells. This review examines some of the approved formulations and discusses the challenges in translating basic research to the clinic. We detail the arsenal of nanocarriers and molecules available for selective tumour targeting, and emphasize the challenges in cancer treatment. more

Topics: Nanocarriers (60%)

6,758 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.291.14.1701
14 Apr 2004-JAMA
Abstract: Author(s): Anderson, Garnet L; Limacher, Marian; Assaf, Annlouise R; Bassford, Tamsen; Beresford, Shirley AA; Black, Henry; Bonds, Denise; Brunner, Robert; Brzyski, Robert; Caan, Bette; Chlebowski, Rowan; Curb, David; Gass, Margery; Hays, Jennifer; Heiss, Gerardo; Hendrix, Susan; Howard, Barbara V; Hsia, Judith; Hubbell, Allan; Jackson, Rebecca; Johnson, Karen C; Judd, Howard; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Kuller, Lewis; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lane, Dorothy; Langer, Robert D; Lasser, Norman; Lewis, Cora E; Manson, JoAnn; Margolis, Karen; Ockene, Judith; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Phillips, Lawrence; Prentice, Ross L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Robbins, John; Rossouw, Jacques E; Sarto, Gloria; Stefanick, Marcia L; Van Horn, Linda; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wallace, Robert; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Women's Health Initiative Steering Committee | Abstract: Despite decades of use and considerable research, the role of estrogen alone in preventing chronic diseases in postmenopausal women remains uncertain.To assess the effects on major disease incidence rates of the most commonly used postmenopausal hormone therapy in the United States.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled disease prevention trial (the estrogen-alone component of the Women's Health Initiative [WHI]) conducted in 40 US clinical centers beginning in 1993. Enrolled were 10 739 postmenopausal women, aged 50-79 years, with prior hysterectomy, including 23% of minority race/ethnicity.Women were randomly assigned to receive either 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) or placebo.The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence (nonfatal myocardial infarction or CHD death). Invasive breast cancer incidence was the primary safety outcome. A global index of risks and benefits, including these primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and deaths from other causes, was used for summarizing overall effects.In February 2004, after reviewing data through November 30, 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) decided to end the intervention phase of the trial early. Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for CEE vs placebo for the major clinical outcomes available through February 29, 2004 (average follow-up 6.8 years), were: CHD, 0.91 (0.75-1.12) with 376 cases; breast cancer, 0.77 (0.59-1.01) with 218 cases; stroke, 1.39 (1.10-1.77) with 276 cases; PE, 1.34 (0.87-2.06) with 85 cases; colorectal cancer, 1.08 (0.75-1.55) with 119 cases; and hip fracture, 0.61 (0.41-0.91) with 102 cases. Corresponding results for composite outcomes were: total cardiovascular disease, 1.12 (1.01-1.24); total cancer, 0.93 (0.81-1.07); total fractures, 0.70 (0.63-0.79); total mortality, 1.04 (0.88-1.22), and the global index, 1.01 (0.91-1.12). For the outcomes significantly affected by CEE, there was an absolute excess risk of 12 additional strokes per 10 000 person-years and an absolute risk reduction of 6 fewer hip fractures per 10 000 person-years. The estimated excess risk for all monitored events in the global index was a nonsignificant 2 events per 10 000 person-years.The use of CEE increases the risk of stroke, decreases the risk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years. A possible reduction in breast cancer risk requires further investigation. The burden of incident disease events was equivalent in the CEE and placebo groups, indicating no overall benefit. Thus, CEE should not be recommended for chronic disease prevention in postmenopausal women. more

4,094 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.200501612
06 Jun 2006-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Hydrophilic polymers are the center of research emphasis in nanotechnology because of their perceived “intelligence”. They can be used as thin films, scaffolds, or nanoparticles in a wide range of biomedical and biological applications. Here we highlight recent developments in engineering uncrosslinked and crosslinked hydrophilic polymers for these applications. Natural, biohybrid, and synthetic hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels are analyzed and their thermodynamic responses are discussed. In addition, examples of the use of hydrogels for various therapeutic applications are given. We show how such systems’ intelligent behavior can be used in sensors, microarrays, and imaging. Finally, we outline challenges for the future in integrating hydrogels into biomedical applications. more

Topics: Self-healing hydrogels (57%)

3,200 Citations

23 Feb 1999-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Shape memory polymer compositions, articles of manufacture thereof, and methods of preparation and use thereof are described. The shape memory polymer compositions can hold more than one shape in memory. Suitable compositions include at least one hard segment and at least one soft segment. The Ttrans of the hard segment is preferably between -30 and 270 °C. At least one of the hard or soft segments can contain a cross-linkable group, and the segments can be linked by formation of an interpenetrating network or a semi-interpenetrating network, or by physical interactions of the blocks. Objects can be formed into a given shape at a temperature above the Ttrans of the hard segment, and cooled to a temperature below the Ttrans of the soft segment. If the object is subsequently formed into a second shape, the object can return to its original shape by heating the object above the Ttrans of the soft segment and below the Ttrans of the hard segment. The compositions can also include two soft segments which are linked via functional groups which are cleaved in response to application of light, electric field, magnetic field or ultrasound. The cleavage of these groups causes the object to return to its original shape. more

2,837 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE02388
Robert Langer1, David A. Tirrell2Institutions (2)
01 Apr 2004-Nature
Abstract: Biomaterials have played an enormous role in the success of medical devices and drug delivery systems. We discuss here new challenges and directions in biomaterials research. These include synthetic replacements for biological tissues, designing materials for specific medical applications, and materials for new applications such as diagnostics and array technologies. more

2,810 Citations

Cited by

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.323.7325.1375/A


08 Dec 2001-BMJ
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in … more

30,199 Citations

Open access
28 Jul 2005-
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。 more

18,940 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.C2
01 Dec 2003-Hypertension
Abstract: The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, CVD risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; those who are normotensive at 55 years of age will have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension; prehypertensive individuals (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg) require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent the progressive rise in blood pressure and CVD; for uncomplicated hypertension, thiazide diuretic should be used in drug treatment for most, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes; this report delineates specific high-risk conditions that are compelling indications for the use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); two or more antihypertensive medications will be required to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg) for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease; for patients whose BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic BP goal or more than 10 mm Hg above the diastolic BP goal, initiation of therapy using two agents, one of which usually will be a thiazide diuretic, should be considered; regardless of therapy or care, hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan. Positive experiences, trust in the clinician, and empathy improve patient motivation and satisfaction. This report serves as a guide, and the committee continues to recognize that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount. more

Topics: Prehypertension (66%), Blood pressure (58%), Antihypertensive drug (57%) more

14,278 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.288.3.321
17 Jul 2002-JAMA
Abstract: Context Despite decades of accumulated observational evidence, the balance of risks and benefits for hormone use in healthy postmenopausal women remains uncertain Objective To assess the major health benefits and risks of the most commonly used combined hormone preparation in the United States Design Estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial (planned duration, 85 years) in which 16608 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years with an intact uterus at baseline were recruited by 40 US clinical centers in 1993-1998 Interventions Participants received conjugated equine estrogens, 0625 mg/d, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 25 mg/d, in 1 tablet (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102) Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome A global index summarizing the balance of risks and benefits included the 2 primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death due to other causes Results On May 31, 2002, after a mean of 52 years of follow-up, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo because the test statistic for invasive breast cancer exceeded the stopping boundary for this adverse effect and the global index statistic supported risks exceeding benefits This report includes data on the major clinical outcomes through April 30, 2002 Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (nominal 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: CHD, 129 (102-163) with 286 cases; breast cancer, 126 (100-159) with 290 cases; stroke, 141 (107-185) with 212 cases; PE, 213 (139-325) with 101 cases; colorectal cancer, 063 (043-092) with 112 cases; endometrial cancer, 083 (047-147) with 47 cases; hip fracture, 066 (045-098) with 106 cases; and death due to other causes, 092 (074-114) with 331 cases Corresponding HRs (nominal 95% CIs) for composite outcomes were 122 (109-136) for total cardiovascular disease (arterial and venous disease), 103 (090-117) for total cancer, 076 (069-085) for combined fractures, 098 (082-118) for total mortality, and 115 (103-128) for the global index Absolute excess risks per 10 000 person-years attributable to estrogen plus progestin were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10 000 person-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures The absolute excess risk of events included in the global index was 19 per 10 000 person-years Conclusions Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 52-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women All-cause mortality was not affected during the trial The risk-benefit profile found in this trial is not consistent with the requirements for a viable intervention for primary prevention of chronic diseases, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD more

Topics: Women's Health Initiative (65%), Transdermal estrogen (57%), Breast cancer (55%) more

13,961 Citations


Author's H-index: 281

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals


106 papers, 20.3K citations

Advanced Materials

51 papers, 8.2K citations

Journal of Controlled Release

46 papers, 3.8K citations

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

43 papers, 3.6K citations

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