Author

# Robert P. W. Duin

Other affiliations: Utrecht University

Bio: Robert P. W. Duin is an academic researcher from Delft University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Random subspace method & Pattern recognition (psychology). The author has an hindex of 62, co-authored 301 publications receiving 31072 citations. Previous affiliations of Robert P. W. Duin include Utrecht University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the well-known methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.

Abstract: The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory have been receiving increasing attention. The design of a recognition system requires careful attention to the following issues: definition of pattern classes, sensing environment, pattern representation, feature extraction and selection, cluster analysis, classifier design and learning, selection of training and test samples, and performance evaluation. In spite of almost 50 years of research and development in this field, the general problem of recognizing complex patterns with arbitrary orientation, location, and scale remains unsolved. New and emerging applications, such as data mining, web searching, retrieval of multimedia data, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the well-known methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.

6,527 citations

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TL;DR: A common theoretical framework for combining classifiers which use distinct pattern representations is developed and it is shown that many existing schemes can be considered as special cases of compound classification where all the pattern representations are used jointly to make a decision.

Abstract: We develop a common theoretical framework for combining classifiers which use distinct pattern representations and show that many existing schemes can be considered as special cases of compound classification where all the pattern representations are used jointly to make a decision. An experimental comparison of various classifier combination schemes demonstrates that the combination rule developed under the most restrictive assumptions-the sum rule-outperforms other classifier combinations schemes. A sensitivity analysis of the various schemes to estimation errors is carried out to show that this finding can be justified theoretically.

5,670 citations

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TL;DR: The Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is presented which obtains a spherically shaped boundary around a dataset and analogous to the Support Vector Classifier it can be made flexible by using other kernel functions.

Abstract: Data domain description concerns the characterization of a data set. A good description covers all target data but includes no superfluous space. The boundary of a dataset can be used to detect novel data or outliers. We will present the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) which is inspired by the Support Vector Classifier. It obtains a spherically shaped boundary around a dataset and analogous to the Support Vector Classifier it can be made flexible by using other kernel functions. The method is made robust against outliers in the training set and is capable of tightening the description by using negative examples. We show characteristics of the Support Vector Data Descriptions using artificial and real data.

2,789 citations

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TL;DR: This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vectors domain description (SVDD), which can be used for novelty or outlier detection and is compared with other outlier Detection methods on real data.

Abstract: This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier detection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary. It has the possibility of transforming the data to new feature spaces without much extra computational cost. By using the transformed data, this SVDD can obtain more flexible and more accurate data descriptions. The error of the first kind, the fraction of the training objects which will be rejected, can be estimated immediately from the description without the use of an independent test set, which makes this method data eAcient. The support vector domain description is compared with other outlier detection methods on real data. ” 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1,581 citations

01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: This work presents here a simple rule for adapting the class combiner to the application and shows that decision templates based on integral type measures of similarity are superior to the other schemes on both data sets.

Abstract: Multiple classi"er fusion may generate more accurate classi"cation than each of the constituent classi"ers. Fusion is often based on "xed combination rules like the product and average. Only under strict probabilistic conditions can these rules be justi"ed. We present here a simple rule for adapting the class combiner to the application. c decision templates (one per class) are estimated with the same training set that is used for the set of classi"ers. These templates are then matched to the decision pro"le of new incoming objects by some similarity measure. We compare 11 versions of our model with 14 other techniques for classi"er fusion on the Satimage and Phoneme datasets from the database ELENA. Our results show that decision templates based on integral type measures of similarity are superior to the other schemes on both data sets. ( 2000 Pattern Recognition Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

968 citations

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Aston University

^{1}TL;DR: This is the first comprehensive treatment of feed-forward neural networks from the perspective of statistical pattern recognition, and is designed as a text, with over 100 exercises, to benefit anyone involved in the fields of neural computation and pattern recognition.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This is the first comprehensive treatment of feed-forward neural networks from the perspective of statistical pattern recognition. After introducing the basic concepts, the book examines techniques for modelling probability density functions and the properties and merits of the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function network models. Also covered are various forms of error functions, principal algorithms for error function minimalization, learning and generalization in neural networks, and Bayesian techniques and their applications. Designed as a text, with over 100 exercises, this fully up-to-date work will benefit anyone involved in the fields of neural computation and pattern recognition.

19,056 citations

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TL;DR: A method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance and mean linked by local regression, is proposed and an implementation, DESeq, as an R/Bioconductor package is presented.

Abstract: High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. To infer differential signal in such data correctly and with good statistical power, estimation of data variability throughout the dynamic range and a suitable error model are required. We propose a method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance and mean linked by local regression and present an implementation, DESeq, as an R/Bioconductor package.

13,356 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and, thus, its utility in detecting the modes of the density.

Abstract: A general non-parametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure: the mean shift. For discrete data, we prove the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and, thus, its utility in detecting the modes of the density. The relation of the mean shift procedure to the Nadaraya-Watson estimator from kernel regression and the robust M-estimators; of location is also established. Algorithms for two low-level vision tasks discontinuity-preserving smoothing and image segmentation - are described as applications. In these algorithms, the only user-set parameter is the resolution of the analysis, and either gray-level or color images are accepted as input. Extensive experimental results illustrate their excellent performance.

11,727 citations

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TL;DR: This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection by grouping existing techniques into different categories based on the underlying approach adopted by each technique.

Abstract: Anomaly detection is an important problem that has been researched within diverse research areas and application domains. Many anomaly detection techniques have been specifically developed for certain application domains, while others are more generic. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection. We have grouped existing techniques into different categories based on the underlying approach adopted by each technique. For each category we have identified key assumptions, which are used by the techniques to differentiate between normal and anomalous behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the effectiveness of the technique in that domain. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and then show how the different existing techniques in that category are variants of the basic technique. This template provides an easier and more succinct understanding of the techniques belonging to each category. Further, for each category, we identify the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in that category. We also provide a discussion on the computational complexity of the techniques since it is an important issue in real application domains. We hope that this survey will provide a better understanding of the different directions in which research has been done on this topic, and how techniques developed in one area can be applied in domains for which they were not intended to begin with.

9,627 citations