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Robert S. Kaplan

Bio: Robert S. Kaplan is an academic researcher from Harvard University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Balanced scorecard & Activity-based costing. The author has an hindex of 78, co-authored 309 publication(s) receiving 66545 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Robert S. Kaplan include Booz Allen Hamilton & United States Naval Research Laboratory.
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17 Apr 2015-
TL;DR: A "balanced scorecard" is developed, a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business and complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures having to do with customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve.
Abstract: Frustrated by the inadequacies of traditional performance measurement systems, some managers have abandoned financial measures like return on equity and earnings per share. "Make operational improvements and the numbers will follow," the argument goes. But managers do not want to choose between financial and operational measures. Executives want a balanced presentation of measures that allow them to view the company from several perspectives simultaneously. During a year-long research project with 12 companies at the leading edge of performance measurement, the authors developed a "balanced scorecard," a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. The balanced scorecard includes financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken. And it complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures having to do with customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve--the activities that drive future financial performance. Managers can create a balanced scorecard by translating their company's strategy and mission statements into specific goals and measures. To create the part of the scorecard that focuses on the customer perspective, for example, executives at Electronic Circuits Inc. established general goals for customer performance: get standard products to market sooner, improve customers' time-to-market, become customers' supplier of choice through partnerships, and develop innovative products tailored to customer needs. Managers translated these elements of strategy into four specific goals and identified a measure for each.

12,625 citations

01 Jan 1996-
Abstract: The rapid evolution of the Balanced Scorecard into a strategic managment system is reported on in this book. The Balanced Scorecard approach retains traditional financial measures which reflect past organizational acheivements, but adds three new measures of future performance found necessary in this information age with its focus on customer relationships and long-term capabilities: customer, internal business process, and learning and growth. With these four perspectives providing the framework for the Balanced Scorecard, organizations can now measure how they create value for customers, how they can enhance internal competencies, and how they must invest in people, systems and procedures to improve future performance. According to the authors, the Balanced Scorecard has evolved from an improved measurement system to a core management system. For the first time there is a systematic process to implement and obtain feedback about strategy. This is an excellent introduction to new management styles.

6,931 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: for competition that is based on information, their ability to exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in recognition of this change, we introduced a concept we called the balanced scorecard. The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional fi nancial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives – those of customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track fi nancial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they would need for future growth. The scorecard wasn’t Editor’s Note: In 1992, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton’s concept of the balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about performance metrics. By going beyond traditional measures of fi nancial performance, the concept has given a generation of managers a better understanding of how their companies are really doing. These nonfi nancial metrics are so valuable mainly because they predict future fi nancial performance rather than simply report what’s already happened. This article, fi rst published in 1996, describes how the balanced scorecard can help senior managers systematically link current actions with tomorrow’s goals, focusing on that place where, in the words of the authors, “the rubber meets the sky.” Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System

5,140 citations

01 Mar 1987-
Abstract: "Relevance Lost" is an overview of the evolution of management accounting in American business, from textile mills in the 1880s and the giant railroad, steel, and retail corporations, to today's environment of global competition and computer-automated manufacturers. The book shows that modern corporations must work toward designing new management accounting systems that will assist managers more fully in their long-term planning. It is the winner of the American Accounting Association's Deloitte Haskins & Sells/Wildman Award Medal. It is also available in paperback: ISBN 0875842542.

3,277 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: In this article Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton report on the Balance Scorecard. Before the Balanced Scorecard companies have used various measurement systems that have made incremental improvements and concentrated mostly on the company's financials. The Balanced Scorecard shows you four different perspectives in which to choose measures that can redefine a company's processes measurement system so short term and long term objectives are in balance with each other. When using the Balanced Scorecard a company is no longer needs to worry about small incremental improvements, but a new processes measurement system that will allow a company to get where it wants to go.

2,436 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses many of the important IS success research contributions of the last decade, focusing especially on research efforts that apply, validate, challenge, and propose enhancements to the original model.
Abstract: Ten years ago, we presented the DeLone and McLean Information Systems (IS) Success Model as a framework and model for measuring the complex-dependent variable in IS research. In this paper, we discuss many of the important IS success research contributions of the last decade, focusing especially on research efforts that apply, validate, challenge, and propose enhancements to our original model. Based on our evaluation of those contributions, we propose minor refinements to the model and propose an updated DeLone and McLean IS Success Model. We discuss the utility of the updated model for measuring e-commerce system success. Finally, we make a series of recommendations regarding current and future measurement of IS success.

8,549 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The ability to transfer best practices internally is critical to a firtn's ability to build competitive advantage through the appropriation of rents from scarce internal knowledge. Just as a firm's distinctive competencies tnight be dificult for other firms to imitate, its best prczctices could be dfficult to imitate internnlly. Yet, little systematic attention has been pcrid to such internal stickiness. The author analyzes itlterrzal stickiness of knowledge transfer crnd tests the resulting model using canonical correlation analysis of a data set consisting of 271 observations of 122 best-practice transfers in eight companies. Contrary to corzverztiorzrzl wisdom that blames primarily motivational factors, the study findings show the major barriers to internal knowledge transfer to be knowledge-related factors such as the recipient's lack oj absorptive capacity, causal anzbiguity, and an arciuous relationship between the source and the recipient. The identification and transfer of best practices cally are hindered less by confidentiality and legal is emerging as one of the most important and obstacles than external transfers, they could be widespread practical management issues of the faster and initially less complicated, all other latter half of the 1990s. Armed with meaningful, things being equal. For those reasons, in an era detailed performance data, firms that use fact- when continuous organizational learning and based management methods such as TQM, bench- relentless performance improvement are needed to marking, and process reengineering can regularly remain competitive, companies must increasingly compare the performance of their units along resort to the internal transfer of capabilitie~.~ operational dimensions. Sparse but unequivocal Yet, experience shows that transferring capaevidence suggests that such comparisons often bilities within a firm is far from easy. General reveal surprising performance differences between Motors had great difficulty in transferring manuunits, indicating a need to improve knowledge facturing practices between divisions (Kerwin and utilization within the firm (e.g., Chew, Bresnahan, Woodruff, 1992: 74) and IBM had limited suc

6,533 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a comprehensive, up-to-date compilation of band parameters for the technologically important III–V zinc blende and wurtzite compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaSb, GaP, GaN, AlAs, AlSb, AlP, AlN, InAs, InSb, InP, and InN, along with their ternary and quaternary alloys. Based on a review of the existing literature, complete and consistent parameter sets are given for all materials. Emphasizing the quantities required for band structure calculations, we tabulate the direct and indirect energy gaps, spin-orbit, and crystal-field splittings, alloy bowing parameters, effective masses for electrons, heavy, light, and split-off holes, Luttinger parameters, interband momentum matrix elements, and deformation potentials, including temperature and alloy-composition dependences where available. Heterostructure band offsets are also given, on an absolute scale that allows any material to be aligned relative to any other.

5,816 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Corporate disclosure is critical for the functioning of an efficient capital market. Firms provide disclosure through regulated financial reports, including the financial statements, footnotes, management discussion and analysis, and other regulatory filings. In addition, some firms engage in voluntary communication, such as management forecasts, analysts? presentations and conference calls, press releases, internet sites, and other corporate reports. Finally, there are disclosures about firms by information intermediaries, such as financial analysts, industry experts, and the financial press.

5,124 citations

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Related Authors (2)
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Author's H-index: 78

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Harvard Business Review

31 papers, 14.1K citations

Social Science Research Network

11 papers, 1.5K citations

Journal of Accounting Research

10 papers, 255 citations

Harvard Deusto business review

8 papers, 65 citations

MRS Proceedings

6 papers, 33 citations