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Robert Sanders

Bio: Robert Sanders is an academic researcher from University of Auckland. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mandarin Chinese & Verb. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 3 publications receiving 5 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study fills a gap in the literature on the polyfunctional nature of the Chinese ditransitive verb gěi ‘to give’ by producing a taxonomy of five extended functions and structures and creating a synchronic constructional network of gĚi, revealing its complex network of connections.
Abstract: This study fills a gap in the literature on the polyfunctional nature of the Chinese ditransitive verb gěi ‘to give’, which has undergone semantic and functional extensions. Our approach differs from previous studies by focusing on a narrowly defined location in time and space, i.e. contemporary Beijing oral language, and by basing our linguistic analysis on data obtained through the systematic sampling of a corpus of spontaneous casual discourse. Based on the existing literature we produce a taxonomy of five extended functions and structures 1) causative verb, 2) passive marker, 3) benefactive/malefactive/dative marker, 4) disposal marker and 5) ditransitive suffix. Of these, the first four share the common linear structure [NP1 gěi NP2 V]. Applying this taxonomy to our data we identified the relative productivity of each of these functions and created a synchronic constructional network of gěi, revealing its complex network of connections.

2 citations

01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: This paper conducted a survey of 182 native speakers of Taiwan Mandarin and TSM with regard to the use of both plain xiang3 and Xiang3shuo1 which contains the complentizer shuo1 to express the opinions of first and third person subjects in each variety of Chinese.
Abstract: It has been observed in languages such as Japanese and Korean that ‘internal states’, e.g. mental processes, emotions, opinions, etc., can be easily expressed with a first-person sentential subject, but cannot be easily expressed with a thirdperson subject (Uehara 2000). In English, on the other hand, “He thinks it will rain very shortly” sounds just as natural as “I think it will rain very shortly”. We report here the results of a survey of 182 native speakers of Taiwan Mandarin (TM), 32 of whom were monolingual speakers and 150 of whom were also native speakers of Taiwan Southern Min (TSM) with regard to the use of both plain xiang3 and xiang3shuo1, which contains the complentizer shuo1 (Cheng 1985), to express the opinions of first and third person subjects in each variety of Chinese. The results show that both TM and TSM exhibit different degrees of acceptability between the two person subjects. We argue that the structural patterns of person restriction observed in TM and TSM can be accounted for in terms of cognitive and sociolinguistic factors.

2 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 1951

636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chafe as mentioned in this paper demonstrates how the study of language and consciousness together can provide an unexpectedly broad understanding of the way the mind works, relying on close analyses of conversational speech, as well as written fiction and non-fiction, he investigates both the flow of ideas through consciousness and the displacement of consciousness by way of memory and imagination.
Abstract: In this text, the author demonstrates how the study of language and consciousness together can provide an unexpectedly broad understanding of the way the mind works. Relying on close analyses of conversational speech, as well as written fiction and non-fiction, he investigates both the flow of ideas through consciousness and the displacement of consciousness by way of memory and imagination. Chafe draws on several decades of research to demonstrate that understanding the nature of consciousness is essential to understanding many linguistic phenomena, such as pronouns, tense, clause structure and intonation, as well as stylistic usages, such as the historical present and the free indirect style. While the book focuses on English, there are also discussions of the North American Indian language, Seneca, and the music of Mozart and of the Seneca people.

113 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The existence of a pragmatic account in terms of general principles of usage undermines the alleged unlearnability essential to this type of grammatical hypothesis as mentioned in this paper, and hence, the existence of such an account undermines the notion of unlearning.
Abstract: to be learned, the existence of a pragmatic account in terms of general principles of usage undermines the alleged unlearnability essential to this type of grammatical hypothesis. 2. And insofar as the constructional meanings are indefeasible—that is, the interpretations are inflexible and can be specified by exceptionless rule, we may confidently attribute the interpretation to a grammatical source; but insofar as they are defeasible and show all the hallmarks of nonmonotonic inference that we associate with pragmatic inference, we should attribute the pattern of preferred interpretation to pragmatics.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to investigate how different constituent orders of the head vis-a-vis the modifier and the complement in Thai and Mandarin Chinese bear on patterns of functional extension of the verbs meaning give in the two languages, namely, hy and gi.
Abstract: It is generally known that Thai and Mandarin Chinese are typologically different in that Thai has the head-modifier constituent order whereas Mandarin Chinese has the modifier-head one. This paper aims to investigate how different constituent orders of the head vis-a-vis the modifier and vis-a-vis the complement in Thai and Mandarin Chinese bear on patterns of functional extension of the verbs meaning give in the two languages, namely, hy in Thai and gi in Mandarin Chinese. Some observations can be made regarding the functional extension patterns of hy and gi as follows: (a) the clause connector use is possible for hy but lacking for gi; (b) the passive-marking use is possible for gi but lacking for hy; (c) the gi-marked dative PP can occur both preverbally and postverbally, whereas the hy-marked one can occur only postverbally; (d) only the preverbal gi-marked dative PPs are attested in a Beijing Mandarin speech corpus; (e) the gi- marked benefactive PP can occur only preverbally; (f) the structural sche...

2 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The authors investigated how different constituent orders of the head vis-a-vis the modifier and complement in Thai and Mandarin Chinese bear on patterns of grammaticalization of the two verbs, namely, ditransitive verb use, dative marking, benefactive marking, and causative marking.
Abstract: The verbs meaning ‘give’ across languages are known to be among the most highly grammaticalized verbs, which exhibit a high degree of polyfunctionality. This paper aims to (i) present commonalities and differences in the grammaticalization of the verbs for ‘give’ in Thai and Mandarin Chinese, namely, hây in Thai and gěi in Mandarin Chinese, and (ii) investigate how different constituent orders of the head vis-a-vis the modifier and complement in Thai and Mandarin Chinese bear on patterns of grammaticalization of the two verbs. It is found that the functions that hây in Thai and gěi in Mandarin Chinese share in common are (1) the ditransitive verb use, (2) the dative-marking use, (3) the benefactivemarking use, and (4) the causative-marking use. As for different functions of hây and gěi, hây exhibits the clause connective use, which is lacking in gěi, whereas gěi exhibit the passive-marking use, which is lacking in hây. It is argued that the head-modifier order in Thai seems to be compatible with postverbal grammaticalized morphemes whereas the modifier-head order in Mandarin Chinese seems to be compatible with preverbal grammaticalized ones.