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Rodolphe V. Carro

Bio: Rodolphe V. Carro is an academic researcher from Kennedy Space Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Liquefied natural gas & Full scale. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 3 publications receiving 3 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, a 400-liter Cryostat vessel was designed and constructed to measure the composition and temperatures of the LNG at a number of different liquid levels over long durations.
Abstract: Growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a rocket fuel necessitates a greater technical understanding of the compositional changes due to preferential boil-off (or weathering) that occurs during long duration storage. The purity of methane in LNG can range from 90 to 98%, and is subject to preferential boil-off due to its low boiling point compared to other constituents despite the use of high-performance thermal insulation systems. Active heat extraction (i.e. refrigeration) is required to completely eliminate weathering. For future operational safety and reliability, and to better understand the quality and efficiency of the LNG as a cryofuel, a 400-liter Cryostat vessel was designed and constructed to measure the composition and temperatures of the LNG at a number of different liquid levels over long durations. The vessel is the centerpiece of a custom-designed lab-scale integrated refrigeration and storage (IRaS) system employing a pulse tube cryocooler capable of roughly 50 W of lift at 100 K. Instrumentation includes ten temperature sensors mounted on a vertical rake and five liquid sample tubes corresponding to five liquid levels. Two modes of operation are studied. The first is without refrigeration in order to determine a baseline in the change in composition, and to study stratification of the LNG. The second is performed with the cryocooler active to determine the operational parameters of the IRaS system for eliminating the weathering as well as stratification effects in the bulk liquid. The apparatus design and test method, as well as preliminary test results are presented in this paper. As a bonus in cost-saving and operational efficiency, the capability of the IRaS system to provide zero-loss capabilities such as zero boil-off (ZBO) keeping of the LNG and zero-loss filling/transfer operations are also discussed.

4 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the development of systems to utilize natural resources on Mars to enable advanced missions is provided in this paper, where the authors provide a comprehensive introduction to the current state-of-theart with the hope of facilitating its further development and integration into the many interconnected space systems including propulsion, power, life support, mobility, and planetary scientific research.

51 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Feb 2022-Energies
TL;DR: In this paper , a model for the self-pressurization and boil-off losses for liquid hydrogen in different tank geometries and thermal insulation systems was developed and implemented in the software package BoilFAST.
Abstract: A model has been developed and implemented in the software package BoilFAST that allows for reliable calculations of the self-pressurization and boil-off losses for liquid hydrogen in different tank geometries and thermal insulation systems. The model accounts for the heat transfer from the vapor to the liquid phase, incorporates realistic heat transfer mechanisms, and uses reference equations of state to calculate thermodynamic properties. The model is validated by testing against a variety of scenarios using multiple sets of industrially relevant data for liquid hydrogen (LH2), including self-pressurization and densification data obtained from an LH2 storage tank at NASA’s Kennedy Space Centre. The model exhibits excellent agreement with experimental and industrial data across a range of simulated conditions, including zero boil-off in microgravity environments, self-pressurization of a stored mass of LH2, and boil-off from a previously pressurized tank as it is being relieved of vapor.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of new experiments which measure the temporal change in boil-off gas production, composition, and pressure at industrially relevant conditions for both ternary mixtures of methane, ethane, and nitrogen and an LNG mixture used as rocket fuel.

4 citations

03 Sep 2018
TL;DR: A 400 liter Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) was developed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to explore advanced techniques for storage, conditioning, and transfer of liquefied natural gas and/or pure methane.
Abstract: Research engineers from the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida have developed a 400 liter Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) cryostat to explore advanced techniques for storage, conditioning, and transfer of liquefied natural gas and/or pure methane. A vertical-cylindrical configuration, the vacuum-jacketed apparatus houses a G-M cryocooler to control the state of the fluid, and sample tubes with corresponding temperature sensors fixed at various elevations to allow for sampling of the liquid. Two additional ports were also included for future instrumentation and/or mechanical feed-throughs. A primary goal of this test apparatus will be to study the effect of IRAS on the behavior of LNG during storage; most notably weathering and stratification of the bulk liquid over time. Additionally, in-situ liquefaction of natural gas can be performed, along with zero boil-off control, liquid densification, and slush production.

1 citations