Other affiliations: Government of India, Karolinska Institutet, Birla Institute of Technology and Science ...read more
Bio: Rohit Saluja is an academic researcher from All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Computer science & Nitric oxide synthase. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 50 publications receiving 1414 citations. Previous affiliations of Rohit Saluja include Government of India & Karolinska Institutet.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The accumulating evidence suggesting novel therapeutic approaches that explore both H1R and H4R as therapeutic targets for histamine-mediated allergic diseases is examined.
Abstract: Histamine and its receptors (H1R-H4R) play a crucial and significant role in the development of various allergic diseases. Mast cells are multifunctional bone marrow-derived tissue-dwelling cells that are the major producer of histamine in the body. H1R are expressed in many cells, including mast cells, and are involved in Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. H2R are involved in Th1 lymphocyte cytokine production. H3R are mainly involved in blood-brain barrier function. H4R are highly expressed on mast cells where their stimulation exacerbates histamine and cytokine generation. Both H1R and H4R have important roles in the progression and modulation of histamine-mediated allergic diseases. Antihistamines that target H1R alone are not entirely effective in the treatment of acute pruritus, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and other allergic diseases. However, antagonists that target H4R have shown promising effects in preclinical and clinical studies in the treatment of several allergic diseases. In the present review, we examine the accumulating evidence suggesting novel therapeutic approaches that explore both H1R and H4R as therapeutic targets for histamine-mediated allergic diseases.
TL;DR: IL-33 is a crucial regulator of mast cell functions and might be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases.
Abstract: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family. It is preferentially and constitutively expressed in different structural cells such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. During necrosis of these cells (after tissue injury or cell damage), the IL-33 that is released may be recognized by different types of immune cells, such as eosinophils, basophils and, especially, mast cells. IL-33 needs the specific receptor ST2 (membrane-bound receptor) and Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein heterodimer for its binding, which instigates the production of different types of cytokines and chemokines that have crucial roles in the exacerbation of allergic diseases and inflammation. IL-33 and mast cells have been influentially associated to the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and inflammation. IL-33 is a crucial regulator of mast cell functions and might be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of IL-33 and mast cells in the pathogenesis of allergies and inflammation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that NO by augmenting free radical formation in human neutrophils mediates NETs release, suggesting involvement of free radicals in NETs formation.
Abstract: High availability of NO, oxidative stress and neutrophil extracellular trap (NETs) contents are often noticed at the site of inflammation/infection. Studies from this lab and others have reported NO mediated free radical generation from neutrophils; role of NO in NETs formation however remains undefined so far. The present study was therefore undertaken to explore the effect of NO donors on NET release from human neutrophils (PMNs), using confocal/scanning microscopy, measuring the extracellular DNA content and NET-bound elastase activity. Addition of NO donors (SNAP and SNP) to adhered PMNs led to a time and concentration dependent NETs release, which was blocked by N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting involvement of free radicals in NETs formation. Free radical formation by NO donors was assessed by using DCF-DA, DMPO-nitrone antibody and by p47 phox migration to the neutrophils membrane. NO mediated formation of free radicals and NETs was significantly reduced by the pretreatment of neutrophils with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor and 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a myeloperoxidase inhibitor, suggesting role of enzymatic free radical generation by NO donors. We thus demonstrate that NO by augmenting free radical formation in human neutrophils mediates NETs release.
TL;DR: Based on the vesicular cargo, the molecular constituents, the exosomes have the potential to change the fate of macrophage phenotypes, either M1, classically activated macrophages, or M2, alternatively activated macophages.
Abstract: This review focuses on exosomes derived from various cancer cells. The review discusses the possibility of differentiating macrophages in alternatively activated anti-inflammatory pro-tumorigenic M2 macrophage phenotypes and classically activated pro-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic M1 macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The review is divided into two main parts, as follows: (1) role of exosomes in alternatively activating M2-like macrophages-breast cancer-derived exosomes, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-derived exosomes, lung cancer-derived exosomes, prostate cancer-derived exosomes, Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)—derived exosomes, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)—derived exosomes, Glioblastoma (GBM) cell-derived exosomes, and colorectal cancer-derived exosomes, (2) role of exosomes in classically activating M1-like macrophages, oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived exosomes, breast cancer-derived exosomes, Pancreatic-cancer derived modified exosomes, and colorectal cancer-derived exosomes, and (3) exosomes and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This review addresses the following subjects: (1) crosstalk between cancer-derived exosomes and recipient macrophages, (2) the role of cancer-derived exosome payload(s) in modulating macrophage fate of differentiation, and (3) intracellular signaling mechanisms in macrophages regarding the exosome’s payload(s) upon its uptake and regulation of the TME. Under the electron microscope, nanoscale exosomes appear as specialized membranous vesicles that emerge from the endocytic cellular compartments. Exosomes harbor proteins, growth factors, cytokines, lipids, miRNA, mRNA, and DNAs. Exosomes are released by many cell types, including reticulocytes, dendritic cells, B-lymphocytes, platelets, mast cells, and tumor cells. It is becoming clear that exosomes can impinge upon signal transduction pathways, serve as a mediator of signaling crosstalk, thereby regulating cell-to-cell wireless communications. Based on the vesicular cargo, the molecular constituents, the exosomes have the potential to change the fate of macrophage phenotypes, either M1, classically activated macrophages, or M2, alternatively activated macrophages. In this review, we discuss and describe the ability of tumor-derived exosomes in the mechanism of macrophage activation and polarization.
TL;DR: The NOS genes - their differential regulation and genetic heterogeneity, highlighting their significance in the pathobiology of PD are focused on.
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a janus faced chemical messenger, which, in the recent years, has been the focus of neurobiologists for its involvement in neurodegenerative disorders in particular, Parkinson's disease (PD). Nitric oxide synthase, the key enzyme involved in NO production exists in three known isoforms. The neuronal and inducible isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. These enzymes are subject to complex expressional and functional regulation involving mRNA diversity, phosphorylation and protein interaction. In the recent years, mRNA diversity and polymorphisms have been identified in the NOS isoforms. Some of these genetic variations have been associated with PD, indicating an etiological role for the NOS genes. This review mainly focuses on the NOS genes - their differential regulation and genetic heterogeneity, highlighting their significance in the pathobiology of PD.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: This mini-review deals with the taxonomy, the mechanisms of formation and catabolism of the free radicals, it examines their beneficial and deleterious effects on cellular activities, and it highlights the potential role of the antioxidants in preventing and repairing damages caused by oxidative stress.
Abstract: Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. This mini-review deals with the taxonomy, the mechanisms of formation and catabolism of the free radicals, it examines their beneficial and deleterious effects on cellular activities, it highlights the potential role of the antioxidants in preventing and repairing damages caused by oxidative stress, and it discusses the antioxidant supplementation in health maintenance.
TL;DR: In this review, the most recent findings in the oxidative stress field are described, highlighting both its bad and good sides for human health.
Abstract: Oxidative stress is a phenomenon caused by an imbalance between production and accumulation of oxygen reactive species (ROS) in cells and tissues and the ability of a biological system to detoxify these reactive products. ROS can play, and in fact they do it, several physiological roles (i.e., cell signaling), and they are normally generated as by-products of oxygen metabolism; despite this, environmental stressors (i.e., UV, ionizing radiations, pollutants, and heavy metals) and xenobiotics (i.e., antiblastic drugs) contribute to greatly increase ROS production, therefore causing the imbalance that leads to cell and tissue damage (oxidative stress). Several antioxidants have been exploited in recent years for their actual or supposed beneficial effect against oxidative stress, such as vitamin E, flavonoids, and polyphenols. While we tend to describe oxidative stress just as harmful for human body, it is true as well that it is exploited as a therapeutic approach to treat clinical conditions such as cancer, with a certain degree of clinical success. In this review, we will describe the most recent findings in the oxidative stress field, highlighting both its bad and good sides for human health.
TL;DR: A survey of basic neutrophil biology, with an emphasis on examples that highlight the function of neutrophils not only as professional killers, but also as instructors of the immune system in the context of infection and inflammatory disease.
Abstract: Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells in circulation, and patients with congenital neutrophil deficiencies suffer from severe infections that are often fatal, underscoring the importance of these cells in immune defense. In spite of neutrophils' relevance in immunity, research on these cells has been hampered by their experimentally intractable nature. Here, we present a survey of basic neutrophil biology, with an emphasis on examples that highlight the function of neutrophils not only as professional killers, but also as instructors of the immune system in the context of infection and inflammatory disease. We focus on emerging issues in the field of neutrophil biology, address questions in this area that remain unanswered, and critically examine the experimental basis for common assumptions found in neutrophil literature.