Other affiliations: Max Planck Society, University of Pennsylvania, Washington University in St. Louis
Bio: Rolland Reinbold is an academic researcher from National Research Council. The author has contributed to research in topics: Stem cell & Cancer stem cell. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 41 publications receiving 2799 citations. Previous affiliations of Rolland Reinbold include Max Planck Society & University of Pennsylvania.
TL;DR: It is shown that mouse embryonic stem cells in culture can develop into oogonia that enter meiosis, recruit adjacent cells to form follicle-like structures, and later develop into blastocysts.
Abstract: Continuation of mammalian species requires the formation and development of the sexually dimorphic germ cells. Cultured embryonic stem cells are generally considered pluripotent rather than totipotent because of the failure to detect germline cells under differentiating conditions. Here we show that mouse embryonic stem cells in culture can develop into oogonia that enter meiosis, recruit adjacent cells to form follicle-like structures, and later develop into blastocysts. Oogenesis in culture should contribute to various areas, including nuclear transfer and manipulation of the germ line, and advance studies on fertility treatment and germ and somatic cell interaction and differentiation. In the early mammalian embryo, the germ line and soma are indistinguishable from each other. In the mouse, germ cell competence is induced at embryonic day 6.5 in proximal epiblast cells by signals emanating from the
TL;DR: It is found that Oct4 and Sox2 were able to dimerize onto DNA in distinct conformational arrangements and it is demonstrated that the DNA enhancer region of their target genes is responsible for the correct spatial alignment of glue-like interaction domains on their surface.
Abstract: Members of the POU and SOX transcription factor families exemplify the partnerships established between various transcriptional regulators during early embryonic development. Although functional cooperativity between key regulator proteins is pivotal for milestone decisions in mammalian development, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we focus on two transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2, as their combination on DNA is considered to direct the establishment of the first three lineages in the mammalian embryo. Using experimental high-resolution structure determination, followed by model building and experimental validation, we found that Oct4 and Sox2 were able to dimerize onto DNA in distinct conformational arrangements. We demonstrate that the DNA enhancer region of their target genes is responsible for the correct spatial alignment of glue-like interaction domains on their surface. Interestingly, these surfaces frequently have redundant functions and are instrumental in recruiting various interacting protein partners.
TL;DR: Data indicate that Oct-4 functions as a corepressor of FoxD3 to provide embryonic lineage-specific transcriptional regulatory activity to maintain appropriate developmental timing.
Abstract: The POU homeodomain protein Oct-4 and the Forkhead Box protein FoxD3 (previously Genesis) are transcriptional regulators expressed in embryonic stem cells. Down-regulation of Oct-4 during gastrulation is essential for proper endoderm development. After gastrulation, FoxD3 is generally down-regulated during early endoderm formation, although it specifically remains expressed in the embryonic neural crest. In these studies, we have found that Oct-4 and FoxD3 can bind to identical regulatory DNA sequences. In addition, Oct-4 physically interacted with the FoxD3 DNA-binding domain. Cotransfection of Oct-4 and FoxD3 expression vectors activated the osteopontin enhancer, which is expressed in totipotent embryonic stem cells. FoxA1 and FoxA2 (previously HNF-3α and HNF-3β) are Forkhead Box transcription factors that participate in liver and lung formation from foregut endoderm. Although FoxD3 activated the FoxA1 and FoxA2 promoters, Oct-4 inhibited FoxD3 activation of the FoxA1 and FoxA2 endodermal promoters. These data indicate that Oct-4 functions as a corepressor of FoxD3 to provide embryonic lineage-specific transcriptional regulatory activity to maintain appropriate developmental timing.
TL;DR: A core enhancer element able to specify transgene expression in forebrain neural precursors of mouse embryos is identified and it is shown that the same core element efficiently activates transcription in inner cell mass-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells.
Abstract: The Sox2 transcription factor is expressed early in the stem cells of the blastocyst inner cell mass and, later, in neural stem cells. We previously identified a Sox2 5′-regulatory region directing transgene expression to the inner cell mass and, later, to neural stem cells and precursors of the forebrain. Here, we identify a core enhancer element able to specify transgene expression in forebrain neural precursors of mouse embryos, and we show that the same core element efficiently activates transcription in inner cell mass-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mutation of POU factor binding sites, able to recognize the neural factors Brn1 and Brn2, shows that these sites contribute to transgene activity in neural cells. The same sites are also essential for activity in ES cells, where they bind different members of the POU family, including Oct4, as shown by gel shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-Oct4 antibodies. Our findings indicate a role for the same POU binding motifs in Sox2 transgene regulation in both ES and neural precursor cells. Oct4 might play a role in the regulation of Sox2 in ES (inner cell mass) cells and, possibly, at the transition between inner cell mass and neural cells, before recruitment of neural POU factors such as Brn1 and Brn2.
TL;DR: It is shown that the expression profiles obtained are exclusive of carcinoma cells with no contribution of non-epithelial cells, suggesting that the down-regulation of a set of genes may be the basic mechanism of cancer formation, while the up-regulation may characterize and possibly control the state of evolution of individual cancers.
Abstract: Expression profiles of breast carcinomas are difficult to interpret when they are obtained from tissue in toto, which may contain a large proportion of non-cancer cells. To avoid this problem, we microscopically isolated cells from a primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and from an axillary node harboring a metastatic breast carcinoma, to obtain pure populations of carcinoma cells (≈500) and used them for serial analysis of gene expression. The expression profiles generated from both populations of cells were compared with the profile of a disease-free mammary epithelium. We showed that the expression profiles obtained are exclusive of carcinoma cells with no contribution of non-epithelial cells. From a total of 16,939 unique tags analyzed, we detected 559 statistically significant changes in gene expression; some of these genes have not been previously associated with breast cancer. We observed that many of the down-regulated genes are the same in both cancers, whereas the up-regulated genes are completely different, suggesting that the down-regulation of a set of genes may be the basic mechanism of cancer formation, while the up-regulation may characterize and possibly control the state of evolution of individual cancers. The results obtained may help in characterizing the neoplastic process of breast cancer.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: Insight is provided into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and how OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal and how they collaborate to form regulatory circuitry consisting of autoregulatory and feedforward loops.
Abstract: The transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG have essential roles in early development and are required for the propagation of undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of human ES cells, we have identified OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG target genes using genome-scale location analysis. We found, surprisingly, that OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG co-occupy a substantial portion of their target genes. These target genes frequently encode transcription factors, many of which are developmentally important homeodomain proteins. Our data also indicate that OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG collaborate to form regulatory circuitry consisting of autoregulatory and feedforward loops. These results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and reveal how OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal.
TL;DR: Nanog is a critical factor underlying pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells, and it is found that one of them, encoding the homeoprotein Nanog, was capable of maintaining ES cell self-renewal independently of LIF/Stat3.
Abstract: Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts grow infinitely while maintaining pluripotency. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) can maintain self-renewal of mouse ES cells through activation of Stat3. However, LIF/Stat3 is dispensable for maintenance of ICM and human ES cells, suggesting that the pathway is not fundamental for pluripotency. In search of a critical factor(s) that underlies pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells, we performed in silico differential display and identified several genes specifically expressed in mouse ES cells and preimplantation embryos. We found that one of them, encoding the homeoprotein Nanog, was capable of maintaining ES cell self-renewal independently of LIF/Stat3. nanog-deficient ICM failed to generate epiblast and only produced parietal endoderm-like cells. nanog-deficient ES cells lost pluripotency and differentiated into extraembryonic endoderm lineage. These data demonstrate that Nanog is a critical factor underlying pluripotency in both ICM and ES cells.
TL;DR: By integrating RNA interference–mediated depletion of Oct4 and Nanog with microarray expression profiling, it is demonstrated that these factors can activate or suppress transcription, and it is shown that common core downstream targets are important to keep ES cells from differentiating.
Abstract: Oct4 and Nanog are transcription factors required to maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation paired-end ditags method, we mapped the binding sites of these factors in the mouse ES cell genome. We identified 1,083 and 3,006 high-confidence binding sites for Oct4 and Nanog, respectively. Comparative location analyses indicated that Oct4 and Nanog overlap substantially in their targets, and they are bound to genes in different configurations. Using de novo motif discovery algorithms, we defined the cis-acting elements mediating their respective binding to genomic sites. By integrating RNA interference-mediated depletion of Oct4 and Nanog with microarray expression profiling, we demonstrated that these factors can activate or suppress transcription. We further showed that common core downstream targets are important to keep ES cells from differentiating. The emerging picture is one in which Oct4 and Nanog control a cascade of pathways that are intricately connected to govern pluripotency, self-renewal, genome surveillance and cell fate determination.
TL;DR: It is found that PRC2 target genes are preferentially activated during ES cell differentiation and that the ES cell regulators OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG cooccupy a significant subset of these genes.
Abstract: Polycomb group proteins are essential for early development in metazoans, but their contributions to human development are not well understood. We have mapped the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunit SUZ12 across the entire nonrepeat portion of the genome in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found that SUZ12 is distributed across large portions of over two hundred genes encoding key developmental regulators. These genes are occupied by nucleosomes trimethylated at histone H3K27, are transcriptionally repressed, and contain some of the most highly conserved noncoding elements in the genome. We found that PRC2 target genes are preferentially activated during ES cell differentiation and that the ES cell regulators OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG cooccupy a significant subset of these genes. These results indicate that PRC2 occupies a special set of developmental genes in ES cells that must be repressed to maintain pluripotency and that are poised for activation during ES cell differentiation.