Bio: Roman Rudnicki is an academic researcher from Nicolaus Copernicus University. The author has contributed to research in topics: European union & Common Agricultural Policy. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 68 publications receiving 166 citations. Previous affiliations of Roman Rudnicki include Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań & Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the spatial analysis and evaluation of the development of energy crops in Poland based on historical, urbanisation and natural conditions was carried out, which showed that in 2010 the surface area taken by energy crops was 154,100ha, which accounted for 0.9% of the total agricultural land.
Abstract: As a member of the European Union, Poland pledged to increase the share of energy generated from renewable resources up to 7.5% by 2010 and to 14% by 2020. These goals can be achieved through the production of biomass. Poland׳s biomass potential is among the highest in Europe and is 895 PJ. A major role in the production of biomass for energy purposes in Poland is played by the cultivation of fast-growing annual and perennial energy plants. The main objective of this research was the spatial analysis and evaluation of the development of energy crops in Poland based on historical, urbanisation and natural conditions. The studies showed that in 2010 the surface area taken by energy crops in Poland was 154,100 ha, which accounted for 0.9% of the total agricultural land. The structure of energy crops is dominated by energy trees and shrubs; on forest land their share accounted for 88.9%. The share of energy crops on arable land accounted for 11.1%. The largest surface area taken by energy crops occurred in the poviats with medium environmental conditions. This is due to the need to use the best arable land for the cultivation for alimentation purposes. However, an intensive use of poor soils for the cultivation of energy crops was not noticed, although they are the first to be used for this purpose. In the structure of energy crops it is noted that the largest areas taken by perennial crops occurred in the poviats in the heavily urbanised areas, which is related to the profitability of production, and predominantly to the market demand. The analysis has shown that Poland has good natural conditions for the development of energy crops, but they are not yet fully utilised.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the spatial match between the natural potential of a region and funding policy between OF support and the prevailing natural conditions, and established areas with untapped potential and those where OF funds are underutilised given their environmental potential.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the measures implemented within the Rural Development Program (RDP) 2007-2013 in Poland, which is dedicated to the diversification of business activities in rural areas and rural livelihood and thus the improvement of the multifunctionality of rural areas.
Abstract: The paper’s main aim is to assess the measures implemented within the Rural Development Program (RDP) 2007–2013 in Poland. This programme is dedicated to the diversification of business activities in rural areas and rural livelihood and, thus, the improvement of the multifunctionality of rural areas. The analysis covered two measures from Axis 3, Improvement of the quality of life in rural areas and diversification of rural economy: M311, diversification into non-agricultural activities; and M312, Establishment and development of micro-enterprise. The study and the discussion are presented from a geographical perspective and, in a broader context, take into account several conditions (natural, urban, agricultural and historical) and the spatial diversity of the allocation of European Union (EU) funds. Models of a policy of multifunctional rural development, implemented after accession to the EU, are presented. The research’s spatial scope covers Poland’s territory on two spatial scales: the system of regions (16 NUTS2 units) and poviats (314 LAU level 1 units). The analysis covers all the projects implemented in Poland under the two measures of Axis 3 of the RDP 2007–2013. A set of conditions was prepared for all LAU1 units, forming the background for assessing the impact of the EU funds on the development of non-agricultural activities. To determine the relationship between the RDP measures and the selected groups of conditions, a synthetic index and a correlation index are used. They are also used to determine the mutual relations between the two analyzed activities in terms of the spatial scales used. Access to the EU funds (RDP) has considerably enlarged the opportunities for accelerating agricultural modernisation and restructuration towards multifunctional development, as well as the opportunities for implementing new development and work methods in the countryside in Poland. The attractiveness of the two studied RDP measures varied across regions. The beneficiaries’ activity depended on the local potential (resources), culture and tradition of the region, and size and potential of the farm. In the areas where agriculture is deeply rooted, beneficiaries were more willing to engage in ventures tapping into the resources available in their farms. Thus, they create additional livelihood of income and workplaces for household members. In turn, the beneficiaries from the areas where farms are smaller and economically weaker often undertake activities related to setting up a new business (outside farming).
TL;DR: In this paper, the spatial diversification of the level and structure of spending funds for two Rural Development Program (RDP) measures: agri-environment-climate measures (AECM) and organic farming scheme (OFS) aimed at supporting proenvironmental forms of agricultural management in the context of bioeconomy development.
Abstract: The Polish agricultural economy has a chance to dynamically develop and influence the innovation policy in the EU model of bioeconomy. The research aims to assess the spatial diversification of the level and structure of spending funds for two Rural Development Program (RDP) measures: agri-environment-climate measures (AECM) and organic farming scheme (OFS) aimed at supporting proenvironmental forms of agricultural management in the context of bioeconomy development. The EU financial perspective determined the time range for 2014–2020. The study was conducted on the example of Poland in two spatial scales: regional (province) and local (community). The analysis was based on partial indicators, which were then subjected to the standardisation procedure and included in the total as a synthetic indicator of the utilisation of RDP 2014–2020 funds aimed at supporting proenvironmental forms of farming. The following information was included in the evaluation: the number of farms, the size of utilised agricultural area (UAA) covered by support and the amounts of payments made under the two analysed RDP measures. In the research, the size and distribution of farms benefiting from AECM and OFS were determined. Besides, the relationship between funds absorption and socioeconomic development, as well as natural and non-natural conditions, were identified. The synthetic indicator of AECM/OFS usage showed a strong spatial differentiation, determined by the impact of several conditions: the level of socioeconomic development, the level of agriculture development, natural conditions of agriculture, land with significant natural and ecological values, and proenvironmental forms of land use on farms. Spatial diversification is more often the result of the impact of proenvironmental or natural-ecological factors than of socioeconomic conditions, or the level of agricultural development.
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed studies aimed at understanding functional relationships between weeds and arthropods in agroecosystems as influenced by biodiversity at different scales, with the main goal of highlighting gaps in knowledge, research methods and approaches.
Abstract: Summary We reviewed studies aimed at understanding functional relationships between weeds and arthropods in agroecosystems as influenced by biodiversity at different scales, with the main goal of highlighting gaps in knowledge, research methods and approaches. We first addressed: (i) the regulation of arthropod communities by weed diversity at genetic, species and habitat levels, (ii) the regulation of weed communities by arthropods through seed predation and dispersal and (iii) belowground weed-insect interactions. We then focussed on methodologies to study weed–arthropod interactions in agricultural landscapes and discuss techniques potentially available for data analysis and the importance of joint weed–arthropod trend detection. Lastly, we discuss the implications of research findings for biodiversity conservation policies (agri-environmental schemes) and suggest some priorities for future work. Results showed that to date research has largely ignored weed–arthropod interactions in agricultural landscapes. No information is available on the role of weed genetic diversity as driver of weed–arthropod interactions, whereas studies on effects of species and habitat diversity often lack a functional perspective and ⁄ or a spatial component. Also, information on how management of the wider agricultural biotope might express positive weed– arthropod functional interactions is scarce. Another area worth being explored is the relationship between weed-leaf ⁄ root herbivores and beneficial arthropods. Tools for spatial data analysis might be useful for elucidating weed–arthropod interactions in agricultural landscapes, but some methodological aspects, e.g. the definition of the most appropriate experimental design and sampling scale ⁄ frequency, must be refined. New studies on weed–arthropod interactions should encompass an explicit spatial component; this knowledge is particularly important for improving IPM ⁄ IWM systems and designing more targeted agri-environmental
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used an ideal typology of Greek farms to identify different types of farms as regards their mode of survival, and linked each survival strategy to different motivations for and constraints against the adoption of alternative farm enterprises.
Abstract: Farm household survival strategies are acknowledged to determine the adoption of alternative farm enterprises as part of the farm household’s production and reproduction pattern and are, thus, used to identify the potential adopters of such enterprises. The present work utilises an ideal typology of Greek farms in order to identify different types of farms as regards their mode of survival. Each survival strategy is linked to different motives for and constraints against the adoption of alternative farm enterprises. Results show that three types of farm households may be identified, namely subsistence, survivalist and productivist farm households. The potential adopters of alternative farm enterprises may be traced among farm households that pursue a survivalist mode of production. It is argued that the diversity of farm structures observed within this type of farm households cannot be regarded as the decisive factor as far as their mode of survival is concerned. Rather, it is considered to form a context of different motivations for and constraints against the adoption of alternative farming activities. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the main parameters that influence the quality of biomass, while analysing the current state-of-the-art power generation from the biomass sector in Portugal, as a new contribution to earlier studies.
Abstract: The quality and composition of biomass as used in Portugal's thermal power plants is highly variable. The biomass consists mainly of residual forest biomass derived from forestry operations and wood waste from industrial processes, in particular paper and pulp industry. Its quality and composition is influenced by the presence of moisture and inert fragments, the latter being incorporated during collection or as a consequence of adherence to the biomass prior to collection. This variability presents difficulties for the thermal power plants; besides being an additional operational cost, the presence of large amounts of water and inerts in biomass used as a fuel, can result in problems related to the instability of the combustion and the accumulation of ash or rock that have to be removed and discarded. The objective of this paper is to review the main parameters that influence the quality of biomass, while analysing the current state-of-the-art power generation from the biomass sector in Portugal, as a new contribution to earlier studies.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed an approach for assessing the effectiveness of those agri-environmental schemes and rural development measures aimed at enhancing the natural value of farmland and, more generally, aimed at releasing the pressure on the environment due to agriculture.
Abstract: This paper proposes an approach for assessing the effectiveness of those agri-environmental schemes and rural development measures aimed at enhancing the natural value of farmland and, more generally, aimed at releasing the pressure on the environment due to agriculture. First, based on fine scale data, indicators derived from the High Nature Value farmland concept are tested at different scales, resolutions and situations: LAU2 for The Netherlands and LAU1 for France. The effect of rural development measures on the evolution of these indicators is then explored. Significant cause-effect relationships are found in the French cases, while only relationships of correlations are observed from the Dutch case study, obviously caused by a lack of data. Using fine scale data on rural development measures related to both 2000–2006 and 2007–2013 programming periods of the Common Agricultural Policy, a spatial econometrics methodology is applied to France, at national level on the one hand, and at a selected NUTS2 level on the other. The results indicate that agri-environmental schemes and specific rural development measures affect the changes in the indicators, and that the spatial scale of the analyses matters. In particular, results indicate that trends observed at the national scale do not necessarily apply at the regional scale (e.g. impacts of conversion to organic farming, the grassland premium, payments for water and biodiversity protection) underlining the importance of multi-scale assessments. Interestingly, delayed effects of the measures implemented in the 2000–2006 programming period, such as machinery investment aids and less-favoured area payments, are detectable. As regards the 2007–2013 rural development measures, the most significant positive effects on the farm nature value indicator are found, at the national level, for locally targeted agri-environmental schemes focused on biodiversity and water issues and, at the NUTS2 level, for supporting organic farming schemes. Given that the farm nature value indicator is built from three different indices (addressing crop diversity, grassland share, and wooded and afforested farmland) the effect of rural development measures on each of these individual indices is also explored. This enables the main structure and the magnitude of policy impacts to be captured and helps with the understanding of why certain objectives were not met. Key findings are relevant in the context of policy monitoring and evaluation, while the methodology proposed, that incorporates spatial effects, is an important contribution to the implementation of the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework by Member States to account for national, regional or local characteristics.
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of temperature, residence time and biomass to water ratio on hydrothermal carbonization of Virginia mallow were conducted, and the results confirmed that the HTC is a promising method for producing energy-dense solid biofuel.