Bio: Rovina Kobun is an academic researcher from Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Food science. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 6 publications receiving 35 citations.
TL;DR: A review of 3D food printing techniques is presented in this article, where the authors categorize, printability, productivity, properties of printable material and mechanism of food printing, as well as propose the future direction of this novel technology.
Abstract: The 3D printing technology has been applied to directly to construct physical model from 3D modelling without any aid of mold. Several industries such as automobile, aerospace including and recently food industry has utilize this technology to manufacture a complicated and intricate part required in the industry. It is foreseeable that 3D food printing (3DP) are possible to produce complex food model with unique internal pattern. A 3D food printing technique is composed of an extrusion-based printing, selective laser sintering and inkjet (liquid binding) printing. The food materials such as sugar, gelatin-based chocolate, and are used to create designed shape based on layer-by-layer method. This paper presents a review of 3D food printing techniques. This review is to categorize, printability, productivity, properties of printable material and mechanism of 3D food printing techniques, as well as to propose the future direction of this novel technology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the in-silico molecular modeling predicted that the aquaporin-3 protein in the stratum corneum bonded preferably to catechin over gallic acid through hydrogen bonds due to the lowest binding energies of − 57.
Abstract: Nanoemulsion is a delivery system used to enhance bioavailability of plant-based compounds across the stratum corneum. Elaeis guineensis leaves are rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants, viz. gallic acid and catechin. The optimal E. guineensis leaves extract water-in-oil nanoemulsion was stable against coalescence, but it was under significant influence of Ostwald ripening over 90 days at 25 °C. The in-vitro permeability revealed a controlled and sustained release of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) of EgLE with a cumulative amount of 1935.0 ± 45.7 µgcm−2 after 8 h. The steady-state flux and permeation coefficient values were 241.9 ± 5.7 µgcm−2 h−1 and 1.15 ± 0.03 cm.h−1, respectively. The kinetic release mechanism for TPC of EgLE was best described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas model due to the highest linearity of R2 = 0.9961, indicating super case II transport mechanism. The in-silico molecular modelling predicted that the aquaporin-3 protein in the stratum corneum bonded preferably to catechin over gallic acid through hydrogen bonds due to the lowest binding energies of − 57.514 kcal/mol and − 8.553 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the in-silico study further verified that catechin could improve skin hydration. Therefore, the optimal nanoemulsion could be used topically as moisturizer to enhance skin hydration based on the in-silico prediction.
TL;DR: In this paper , the effect of varying bed depth and flow rate over time on the removal efficiency of color from batik industrial effluent (BIE) was analyzed, and the results of FTIR showed that some functional groups such as CO and OH were hosted on the surface of the biochar.
Abstract: Batik industrial effluent wastewater (BIE) contains toxic dyes that, if directly channeled into receiving water bodies without proper treatment, could pollute the aquatic ecosystem and, detrimentally, affect the health of people. This study is aimed at assessing the adsorptive efficacy of a novel low-cost sewage-sludge-based biochar (SSB), in removing color from batik industrial effluent (BIE). Sewage-sludge-based biochar (SSB) was synthesized through two stages, the first is raw-material gathering and preparation. The second stage is carbonization, in a muffle furnace, at 700 °C for 60 min. To investigate the changes introduced by the preparation process, the raw sewage sludge (RS) and SSB were characterized by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of biochar was found to be 117.7 m2/g. The results of FTIR showed that some functional groups, such as CO and OH, were hosted on the surface of the biochar. Continuous fixed-bed column studies were conducted, by using SSB as an adsorbent. A glass column with a diameter of 20 mm was packed with SSB, to depths of 5 cm, 8 cm, and 12 cm. The volumes of BIE passing through the column were 384 mL/d, 864 mL/d, and 1680 mL/d, at a flow rate of 16 mL/h, 36 mL/h, and 70 mL/h, respectively. The initial color concentration in the batik sample was 234 Pt-Co, and the pH was kept in the range of 3–5. The effect of varying bed depth and flow rate over time on the removal efficiency of color was analyzed. It was observed that the breakthrough time differed according to the depth of the bed and changes in the flow rates. The longest time, where breakthrough and exhausting points occurred, was recorded at the highest bed and slowest flowrate. However, the increase in flow rate and decrease in bed depth made the breakthrough curves steeper. The maximum bed capacity of 42.30 mg/g was achieved at a 16 mL/h flowrate and 12 cm bed height. Thomas and Bohart–Adams mathematical models were applied, to analyze the adsorption data and the interaction between the adsorption variables. For both models, the correlation coefficient (R2) was more than 0.9, which signifies that the experimental data are well fitted. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior is best explained by the Thomas model, as it covers the whole range of breakthrough curves.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolated from cow milk and related samples, and partial sequencing was done to ascertain the genetic relatedness and possible cross contamination among the samples.
Abstract: There is a rising concern about illnesses resulting from milk consumption due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms including Escherichia coli. This study examined the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolated from cow milk and related samples. Furthermore, partial sequencing was done to ascertain the genetic relatedness and possible cross contamination among the samples. In all, 250 samples, that is, 50 each of raw milk, cow teat, milkers’ hands, milking utensils, and fecal matter of cows, were cultured for the identification of E. coli. E. coli was detected in 101/250 samples (40.4%). Milk and fecal samples recorded the highest percentages of 68.0% and 66.0%, respectively. Forty-two (42) E. coli strains examined for antimicrobial resistance showed an overall 25.5% resistance, 15.0% intermediate resistance, and 59.5% susceptibility. The isolates had a high level of resistance to teicoplanin (100.0%), but were susceptible to chloramphenicol (95.2%) and azithromycin (92.9%). The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index pattern ranged from 0.1 to 0.5, and 40.5% exhibited multiple drug resistance. The E. coli strains formed 11 haplotypes, and a phylogenic tree analysis showed relatedness among the isolates in other African countries. This observation is an indication of cross contamination among the milk and its related samples.
TL;DR: In this article , the effects of nitrite usage in cured meats and highlights the role of Nitrite in the production of carcinogenic nitrosamines as well as possible nitrite substitutes from natural resources explored also.
Abstract: Nitrite is one of the most widely used curing ingredients in meat industries. Nitrites have numerous useful applications in cured meats and a vital component in giving cured meats their unique characteristics, such as their pink color and savory flavor. Nitrites are used to suppress the oxidation of lipid and protein in meat products and to limit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum. Synthetic nitrite is frequently utilized for curing due to its low expenses and easier applications to meat. However, it is linked to the production of nitrosamines, which has raised several health concerns among consumers regarding its usage in meat products. Consumer desire for healthier meat products prepared with natural nitrite sources has increased due to a rising awareness regarding the application of synthetic nitrites. However, it is important to understand the various activities of nitrite in meat curing for developing novel substitutes of nitrites. This review emphasizes on the effects of nitrite usage in meat and highlights the role of nitrite in the production of carcinogenic nitrosamines as well as possible nitrite substitutes from natural resources explored also.
TL;DR: In this paper , the analysis of azo dyes in food samples in terms of carbon nanomaterials used, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene (Gr).
Abstract: Azo dyes as widely applied food colorants are popular for their stability and affordability. On the other hand, many of these dyes can have harmful impacts on living organs, which underscores the need to control the content of this group of dyes in food. Among the various analytical approaches for detecting the azo dyes, special attention has been paid to electro-analytical techniques for reasons such as admirable sensitivity, excellent selectivity, reproducibility, miniaturization, green nature, low cost, less time to prepare and detect of specimens and the ability to modify the electrode. Satisfactory results have been obtained so far for carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of electrochemical sensing systems in detecting the levels of these materials in various specimens. The purpose of this review article is to investigate carbon nanomaterial-supported techniques for electrochemical sensing systems on the analysis of azo dyes in food samples in terms of carbon nanomaterials used, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene (Gr).
TL;DR: Direct ink writing (DIW) has emerged as the most versatile 3D printing technique for the broadest range of materials as mentioned in this paper , as long as the precursor ink can be engineered to demonstrate appropriate rheological behavior.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant attention due to its ability to drive technological development as a sustainable, flexible, and customizable manufacturing scheme. Among the various AM techniques, direct ink writing (DIW) has emerged as the most versatile 3D printing technique for the broadest range of materials. DIW allows printing of practically any material, as long as the precursor ink can be engineered to demonstrate appropriate rheological behavior. This technique acts as a unique pathway to introduce design freedom, multifunctionality, and stability simultaneously into its printed structures. Here, a comprehensive review of DIW of complex 3D structures from various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glass, cement, graphene, metals, and their combinations through multimaterial printing is presented. The review begins with an overview of the fundamentals of ink rheology, followed by an in‐depth discussion of the various methods to tailor the ink for DIW of different classes of materials. Then, the diverse applications of DIW ranging from electronics to food to biomedical industries are discussed. Finally, the current challenges and limitations of this technique are highlighted, followed by its prospects as a guideline toward possible futuristic innovations.
TL;DR: In this article, a sustainable blockchain framework for the halal food supply chain is proposed based on five in-depth case studies, which reveals a practical framework for overcoming the challenges faced by the Halal food chain pertaining to blockchain implementation.
Abstract: This study proposes a sustainable blockchain framework for the halal food supply chain. As is widely acknowledged, blockchain could enhance supply chain integrity, but its impacts on the halal food supply chain are unknown. Disruptive technologies for Industry 4.0 can improve transparency, which is desperately needed in the food supply chain; however, various challenges are also incurred. Based on five in-depth halal food supply chain case studies, this paper reveals a practical framework for overcoming the challenges faced by the halal food supply chain pertaining to blockchain implementation. The framework comprises five key challenges that are vital to small and medium enterprises in halal food supply chain blockchain implementation. The findings also indicate that the halal food supply chain can gain a congruent and fresh perspective in inducing or superseding blockchain technology. In addition, the roles of supply chain integration and food regulations as the key enablers on the success of blockchain technology in the halal food supply chain are also discussed in this study. Additionally, the limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
TL;DR: The results show that the biosensor is sensitive and useful for the determination of Tz.
Abstract: In this paper, a poly (glycine) modified carbon paste electrode (PGMCPE) for sensitive determination of Tartrazine (Tz) was developed. The electrochemical behaviors of Tz at the PGMCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential voltammetry and the results showed that the polymer film on electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of Tz in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7 (PBS). The influencing factors containing a supporting electrolyte, pH of the solution, deposition potential, amount of Tz and scan rate were investigated. The sensor exhibited two linear behavior in the range of 1 × 10−6 to 2.7 × 10−5 mol L−1 and 3.5 × 10−5 to 8.7 × 10−5 mol L−1 for Tz (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.995 respectively) with detection limit (LOD) of 2.83 × 10−7 mol L−1, limit of quantification (LOQ) 9.4 × 10−7 mol L−1 and detection sensitivity (2.0452 μA/μM), for Tz. The results show that the biosensor is sensitive and useful for the determination of Tz.
TL;DR: An insight into different extraction and analytical methods for the determination of tartrazine in healthy foods, which will attract the attention of public toward food safety and quality, and also the interest of food industry and government bodies are given.
Abstract: Tartrazine is an azo food dye, which is orange-colored and water soluble. It is usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine has the potential to cause an adverse hea...