Other affiliations: Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Zhengzhou University, Chinese Academy of Sciences ...read more
Bio: Ruiqin Zhang is an academic researcher from City University of Hong Kong. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Density functional theory. The author has an hindex of 50, co-authored 422 publications receiving 11109 citations. Previous affiliations of Ruiqin Zhang include Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics & Zhengzhou University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the oxide-assisted growth (OAG) technique was proposed for the growth of nanostructured materials. But the OAG technique is not suitable for high-purity silicon nanowires.
Abstract: In this contribution, we outline oxide-assisted growth (OAG) (distinct from the conventional metal-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process) for the growth of nanostructured materials. This synthesis technique, in whichoxides instead of metals play an important role in inducing the nucleation and growth of nanowires, is capable of producing large quantities of high-purity silicon nanowires with a preferential growth direction, uniform size, and long length, without the need for a metal catalyst. The OAG 1D nanomaterials synthesis is complementary to, and coexistent with, the conventional metal-catalyst VLS approach, and can be utilized to produce nanowires from a host of materials other than Si including Ge nanowires, carbon nanowires, silicon and SnO 2 nanoribbons, and Group III-V and II-VI compound semiconductor nanowires.
TL;DR: In this article, an effective structural doping approach has been described to modify the photoelectrochemical properties of g-C3N4 by doping with nonmetal (sulfur or phosphorus) impurities.
Abstract: An effective structural doping approach has been described to modify the photoelectrochemical properties of g-C3N4 by doping with nonmetal (sulfur or phosphorus) impurities. Here, the substitutional and interstitial doped models of g-C3N4 systems were constructed with different doped sites, and then their dopant formation energies and electronic properties were performed to study the stability and visible-light photoactivity using first-principles density functional theory, respectively. Our results have identified that an S atom preferentially substitutes for the edge N atom of g-C3N4; however, a P atom preferentially situates the interstitial sites of in-planar of g-C3N4. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the doping with nonmetal impurities reduces the energy gap to enhance the visible-light absorption of g-C3N4. The increased dispersion of the contour distribution of the HOMO and LUMO brought by doping facilitates the enhancement of the carrier mobility, while the noncoplanar HOMO and LUMO favor the...
TL;DR: In this paper, the status of research on the formation of nanowire structures via highly anisotropic growth of nanocrystals of semiconductor and metal oxide materials with an emphasis on the structural characterization of the nucleation, initial growth, defects and interface structures.
Abstract: The tremendous interest in nanoscale structures such as quantum dots (zero-dimension) and wires (quasi-one-dimension) stems from their size-dependent properties. One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures are of particular interest because of their potential applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. For 1D semiconductor nanomaterials to have wide practical application, however, several areas require further development. In particular, the fabrication of desired 1D nanomaterials with tailored atomic structures and their assembly into functional devices are still major challenges for nanotechnologists. In this review, we focus on the status of research on the formation of nanowire structures via highly anisotropic growth of nanocrystals of semiconductor and metal oxide materials with an emphasis on the structural characterization of the nucleation, initial growth, defects and interface structures, as well as on theoretical analyses of nanocrystal formation, reactivity and stability. We review various methods used and mechanisms involved to generate 1D nanostructures from different material systems through self-organized growth techniques including vapor–liquid–solid growth, oxide-assisted chemical vapor deposition (without a metal catalyst), laser ablation, thermal evaporation, metal-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy, chemical beam epitaxy and hydrothermal reaction. 1D nanostructures grown by these technologies have been observed to exhibit unusual growth phenomena and unexpected properties, e.g., diameter-dependent and temperature-dependent growth directions, structural transformation by enhanced photothermal effects and phase transformation induced by the point contact reaction in ultra-thin semiconductor nanowires. Recent progress in controlling growth directions, defects, interface structures, structural transformation, contacts and hetero-junctions in 1D nanostructures is addressed. Also reviewed are the quantitative explorations and predictions of some challenging 1D nanostructures and descriptions of the growth mechanisms of 1D nanostructures, based on the energetic, dynamic and kinetic behaviors of the building block nanostructures and their surfaces and/or interfaces.
TL;DR: In this article, a facile fabricating method has been established for large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays, which were obtained by single crystals and epitaxial on the substrate.
Abstract: A facile fabricating method has been established for large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays All silicon nanowires obtained were single crystals and epitaxial on the substrate Six kinds of silicon wafers with different types, surface orientations, and doping levels were utilized as starting materials With the catalysis of silver nanoparticles, room-temperature mild chemical etching was conducted in aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) The corresponding silicon nanowires arrays with different morphologies were obtained The silicon nanowires possess the same type and same doping level of the starting wafer All nanowires on the substrate have the same orientation For instance, both (100)- and (111)-oriented p-type wafers produced silicon nanowires in the (100) direction For every kind of silicon wafer, the effect of etching conditions, such as components of etchant, temperature, and time, were systemically investigated This is an appropriate method to produce a
TL;DR: In this article, an electrokinetic model has been formulated, which satisfactorily explains the microscopic dynamic origin of motility of metal particles in Si, and provides a facile approach to produce various Si nanostructures, especially ordered Si nanowire arrays from Si wafers of desired properties.
Abstract: The autonomous motion behavior of metal particles in Si, and the consequential anisotropic etching of silicon and production of Si nanostructures, in particular, Si nanowire arrays in oxidizing hydrofluoric acid solution, has been systematically investigated. It is found that the autonomous motion of metal particles (Ag and Au) in Si is highly uniform, yet directional and preferential along the  crystallographic orientation of Si, rather than always being normal to the silicon surface. An electrokinetic model has been formulated, which, for the first time, satisfactorily explains the microscopic dynamic origin of motility of metal particles in Si. According to this model, the power generated in the bipolar electrochemical reaction at a metal particle's surface can be directly converted into mechanical work to propel the tunneling motion of metal particles in Si. The mechanism of pore and wire formation and their dependence on the crystal orientation are discussed. These models not only provide fundamental interpretation of metal-induced formation of pits, porous silicon, and silicon nanowires and nanopores, they also reveal that metal particles in the metal/Si system could work as a self-propelled nanomotor. Significantly, it provides a facile approach to produce various Si nanostructures, especially ordered Si nanowire arrays from Si wafers of desired properties.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: It is anticipated that this review can stimulate a new research doorway to facilitate the next generation of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts with ameliorated performances by harnessing the outstanding structural, electronic, and optical properties for the development of a sustainable future without environmental detriment.
Abstract: As a fascinating conjugated polymer, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has become a new research hotspot and drawn broad interdisciplinary attention as a metal-free and visible-light-responsive photocatalyst in the arena of solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. This is due to its appealing electronic band structure, high physicochemical stability, and “earth-abundant” nature. This critical review summarizes a panorama of the latest progress related to the design and construction of pristine g-C3N4 and g-C3N4-based nanocomposites, including (1) nanoarchitecture design of bare g-C3N4, such as hard and soft templating approaches, supramolecular preorganization assembly, exfoliation, and template-free synthesis routes, (2) functionalization of g-C3N4 at an atomic level (elemental doping) and molecular level (copolymerization), and (3) modification of g-C3N4 with well-matched energy levels of another semiconductor or a metal as a cocatalyst to form heterojunction nanostructures. The constructi...
TL;DR: The focus of this review will be on the performance analysis of π-conjugated systems in OFETs, a kind of device consisting of an organic semiconducting layer, a gate insulator layer, and three terminals that provide an important insight into the charge transport of ρconjugate systems.
Abstract: Since the discovery of highly conducting polyacetylene by Shirakawa, MacDiarmid, and Heeger in 1977, π-conjugated systems have attracted much attention as futuristic materials for the development and production of the next generation of electronics, that is, organic electronics. Conceptually, organic electronics are quite different from conventional inorganic solid state electronics because the structural versatility of organic semiconductors allows for the incorporation of functionality by molecular design. This versatility leads to a new era in the design of electronic devices. To date, the great number of π-conjugated semiconducting materials that have either been discovered or synthesized generate an exciting library of π-conjugated systems for use in organic electronics. 11 However, some key challenges for further advancement remain: the low mobility and stability of organic semiconductors, the lack of knowledge regarding structure property relationships for understanding the fundamental chemical aspects behind the structural design, and realization of desired properties. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are a kind of device consisting of an organic semiconducting layer, a gate insulator layer, and three terminals (drain, source, and gate electrodes). OFETs are not only essential building blocks for the next generation of cheap and flexible organic circuits, but they also provide an important insight into the charge transport of πconjugated systems. Therefore, they act as strong tools for the exploration of the structure property relationships of πconjugated systems, such as parameters of field-effect mobility (μ, the drift velocity of carriers under unit electric field), current on/off ratio (the ratio of the maximum on-state current to the minimum off-state current), and threshold voltage (the minimum gate voltage that is required to turn on the transistor). 17 Since the discovery of OFETs in the 1980s, they have attracted much attention. Research onOFETs includes the discovery, design, and synthesis of π-conjugated systems for OFETs, device optimization, development of applications in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, flexible displays, electronic papers, sensors, and so forth. It is beyond the scope of this review to cover all aspects of π-conjugated systems; hence, our focus will be on the performance analysis of π-conjugated systems in OFETs. This should make it possible to extract information regarding the fundamental merit of semiconducting π-conjugated materials and capture what is needed for newmaterials and what is the synthesis orientation of newπ-conjugated systems. In fact, for a new science with many practical applications, the field of organic electronics is progressing extremely rapidly. For example, using “organic field effect transistor” or “organic field effect transistors” as the query keywords to search the Web of Science citation database, it is possible to show the distribution of papers over recent years as shown in Figure 1A. It is very clear
TL;DR: The photo-catalytic applications of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts in the fields of water splitting, CO2 reduction, pollutant degradation, organic syntheses, and bacterial disinfection are reviewed, with emphasis on photocatalysis promoted by carbon materials, non-noble-metal coc atalysts, and Z-scheme heterojunctions.
Abstract: Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is considered to be an attractive way for solving the worldwide energy shortage and environmental pollution issues. Since the pioneering work in 2009 on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting, g-C3N4 -based photocatalysis has become a very hot research topic. This review summarizes the recent progress regarding the design and preparation of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts, including the fabrication and nanostructure design of pristine g-C3N4 , bandgap engineering through atomic-level doping and molecular-level modification, and the preparation of g-C3N4 -based semiconductor composites. Also, the photo-catalytic applications of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts in the fields of water splitting, CO2 reduction, pollutant degradation, organic syntheses, and bacterial disinfection are reviewed, with emphasis on photocatalysis promoted by carbon materials, non-noble-metal cocatalysts, and Z-scheme heterojunctions. Finally, the concluding remarks are presented and some perspectives regarding the future development of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted.