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Ruixiang Fei

Bio: Ruixiang Fei is an academic researcher from Washington University in St. Louis. The author has contributed to research in topics: Band gap & Phosphorene. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 41 publications receiving 4606 citations. Previous affiliations of Ruixiang Fei include University of Pennsylvania & Peking University.

Papers
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TL;DR: First-principles simulations show that this unique anisotropic free-carrier mobility can be controlled by using simple strain conditions, and will be useful for exploring unusual quantum Hall effects and exotic electronic and mechanical applications based on phosphorene.
Abstract: Newly fabricated few-layer black phosphorus and its monolayer structure, phosphorene, are expected to be promising for electronic and optical applications because of their finite direct band gaps and sizable but anisotropic electronic mobility. By first-principles simulations, we show that this unique anisotropic free-carrier mobility can be controlled by using simple strain conditions. With the appropriate biaxial or uniaxial strain (4–6%), we can rotate the preferred conducting direction by 90°. This will be useful for exploring unusual quantum Hall effects and exotic electronic and mechanical applications based on phosphorene.

1,167 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities.
Abstract: Thermoelectric devices that utilize the Seebeck effect convert heat flow into electrical energy and are highly desirable for the development of portable, solid state, passively powered electronic systems. The conversion efficiencies of such devices are quantified by the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), which is proportional to the ratio of a device’s electrical conductance to its thermal conductance. In this paper, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities. First-principles and model calculations reveal not only that phosphorene possesses a spatially anisotropic electrical conductance, but that its lattice thermal conductance exhibits a pronounced spatial-anisotropy as well. The prominent electrical and thermal conducting directions are orthogonal to one another, enhancing the ratio of these conductances. As a result, ZT may reach the criterion for commercial deployment along th...

687 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors predict anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M=Sn or Ge, X=Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS.
Abstract: We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M=Sn or Ge, X=Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique “puckered” C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

571 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors predict enormous piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M=Sn or Ge, X=Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe and GeS.
Abstract: We predict enormous piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M=Sn or Ge, X=Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their characteristic piezoelectric coefficients are about two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique "puckered" C2v symmetry and weaker chemical bonds of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications, such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

468 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: TheFerroelectricity in monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides MX is found to be robust and the corresponding Curie temperatures are higher than room temperature, making them promising for realizing ultrathin ferroelectric devices of broad interest.
Abstract: Ferroelectricity usually fades away as materials are thinned down below a critical value. We reveal that the unique ionic-potential anharmonicity can induce spontaneous in-plane electrical polarization and ferroelectricity in monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides $MX$ ($M=\mathrm{Ge}$, Sn; $X=\mathrm{S}$, Se). An effective Hamiltonian has been successfully extracted from the parametrized energy space, making it possible to study the ferroelectric phase transitions in a single-atom layer. The ferroelectricity in these materials is found to be robust and the corresponding Curie temperatures are higher than room temperature, making them promising for realizing ultrathin ferroelectric devices of broad interest. We further provide the phase diagram and predict other potentially two-dimensional ferroelectric materials.

433 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jul 2016-Science
TL;DR: Two-dimensional heterostructures with extended range of functionalities yields a range of possible applications, and spectrum reconstruction in graphene interacting with hBN allowed several groups to study the Hofstadter butterfly effect and topological currents in such a system.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Materials by design is an appealing idea that is very hard to realize in practice. Combining the best of different ingredients in one ultimate material is a task for which we currently have no general solution. However, we do have some successful examples to draw upon: Composite materials and III-V heterostructures have revolutionized many aspects of our lives. Still, we need a general strategy to solve the problem of mixing and matching crystals with different properties, creating combinations with predetermined attributes and functionalities. ADVANCES Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer a platform that allows creation of heterostructures with a variety of properties. One-atom-thick crystals now comprise a large family of these materials, collectively covering a very broad range of properties. The first material to be included was graphene, a zero-overlap semimetal. The family of 2D crystals has grown to includes metals (e.g., NbSe 2 ), semiconductors (e.g., MoS 2 ), and insulators [e.g., hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)]. Many of these materials are stable at ambient conditions, and we have come up with strategies for handling those that are not. Surprisingly, the properties of such 2D materials are often very different from those of their 3D counterparts. Furthermore, even the study of familiar phenomena (like superconductivity or ferromagnetism) in the 2D case, where there is no long-range order, raises many thought-provoking questions. A plethora of opportunities appear when we start to combine several 2D crystals in one vertical stack. Held together by van der Waals forces (the same forces that hold layered materials together), such heterostructures allow a far greater number of combinations than any traditional growth method. As the family of 2D crystals is expanding day by day, so too is the complexity of the heterostructures that could be created with atomic precision. When stacking different crystals together, the synergetic effects become very important. In the first-order approximation, charge redistribution might occur between the neighboring (and even more distant) crystals in the stack. Neighboring crystals can also induce structural changes in each other. Furthermore, such changes can be controlled by adjusting the relative orientation between the individual elements. Such heterostructures have already led to the observation of numerous exciting physical phenomena. Thus, spectrum reconstruction in graphene interacting with hBN allowed several groups to study the Hofstadter butterfly effect and topological currents in such a system. The possibility of positioning crystals in very close (but controlled) proximity to one another allows for the study of tunneling and drag effects. The use of semiconducting monolayers leads to the creation of optically active heterostructures. The extended range of functionalities of such heterostructures yields a range of possible applications. Now the highest-mobility graphene transistors are achieved by encapsulating graphene with hBN. Photovoltaic and light-emitting devices have been demonstrated by combining optically active semiconducting layers and graphene as transparent electrodes. OUTLOOK Currently, most 2D heterostructures are composed by direct stacking of individual monolayer flakes of different materials. Although this method allows ultimate flexibility, it is slow and cumbersome. Thus, techniques involving transfer of large-area crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), direct growth of heterostructures by CVD or physical epitaxy, or one-step growth in solution are being developed. Currently, we are at the same level as we were with graphene 10 years ago: plenty of interesting science and unclear prospects for mass production. Given the fast progress of graphene technology over the past few years, we can expect similar advances in the production of the heterostructures, making the science and applications more achievable.

4,851 citations

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3,711 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials including transition metal dichalcogenides are reviewed with an emphasis on nanophotonic applications, and two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances.
Abstract: The optical properties of graphene and emerging two-dimensional materials including transition metal dichalcogenides are reviewed with an emphasis on nanophotonic applications. Two-dimensional materials exhibit diverse electronic properties, ranging from insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulphide, to semimetallic graphene. In this Review, we first discuss the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials, and then cover two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances. Finally, we present a narrow-bandgap layered material — black phosphorus — that serendipitously bridges the energy gap between the zero-bandgap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides. The plethora of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures, together with the array of available approaches for enhancing the light–matter interaction, offers the promise of scientific discoveries and nanophotonics technologies across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

2,414 citations

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TL;DR: With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.
Abstract: The unique electrical, mechanical and physical properties of two-dimensional materials make them attractive candidates in flexible nanoelectronic systems. Here Akinwande et al. review the literature on two-dimensional materials in flexible nanoelectronics, and highlight barriers to their full implementation.

1,575 citations