Other affiliations: Johnson & Johnson, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Rutgers University ...read more
Bio: Runa Sur is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Oxidative stress & Keratinocyte. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 21 publications receiving 598 citations. Previous affiliations of Runa Sur include Johnson & Johnson & Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development.
TL;DR: Results demonstrate that avenanthramides are potent anti-inflammatory agents that appear to mediate the anti-irritant effects of oats.
Abstract: Oatmeal has been used for centuries as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation associated with various xerotic dermatoses; however few studies have sought to identify the active phytochemical(s) in oat that mediate this anti-inflammatory activity. Avenanthramides are phenolic compounds present in oats at approximately 300 parts per million (ppm) and have been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant activity in various cell-types. In the current study we investigated whether these compounds exert anti-inflammatory activity in the skin. We found that avenanthramides at concentrations as low as 1 parts per billion inhibited the degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α) in keratinocytes which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Furthermore, cells treated with avenanthramides showed a significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB luciferase activity and subsequent reduction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. Additionally, topical application of 1–3 ppm avenanthramides mitigated inflammation in murine models of contact hypersensitivity and neurogenic inflammation and reduced pruritogen-induced scratching in a murine itch model. Taken together these results demonstrate that avenanthramides are potent anti-inflammatory agents that appear to mediate the anti-irritant effects of oats.
TL;DR: Downregulation of HSp27 using Hsp27-specific small interfering RNA increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in both unstimulated and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated keratinocytes and resulted in induction of NF-kappaB reporter activity in Keratinocytes, indicating a protective role in regulating inflammatory responses in skin.
Abstract: Heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a member of the small Hsp family that functions as molecular chaperones and protects cells against environmental stress. Hsp27 is expressed in the upper epidermal layers of normal human skin and has been reported to play a role in keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis. In this investigation, we show an additional role of Hsp27 in the regulation of inflammatory pathways in keratinocytes. Downregulation of Hsp27 using Hsp27-specific small interfering RNA increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in both unstimulated and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated keratinocytes. Moreover, downregulation of Hsp27 increased the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 from TNF-α-stimulated and UV-irradiated keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by pretreatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082. Further studies showed that downregulation of Hsp27 resulted in induction of NF-κB reporter activity in keratinocytes. This correlated with enhanced degradation of IκB-α protein and accumulation of phosphorylated IκB-α in Hsp27 knockdown cells. Moreover, Hsp27 associated with the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. As synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and the prostanoid PGE2 are regulated by NF-κB, this could be a probable mechanism by which Hsp27 modulates the production of these inflammatory cytokines. Thus, Hsp27 plays a protective role in regulating inflammatory responses in skin.
TL;DR: HSP60 is an effective inducer of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophages, as well as endothelial cells and Mobility shift assays revealed that NF-kappaB and CRE binding activity was induced, while CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, which binds to NF-IL-6, was constitutively active in the cells.
Abstract: The 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60), an endogenous ligand for the toll-like 4 receptor, is generated in response to inflammation, tissue injury, and/or stress and stimulates macrophages to produc...
TL;DR: Combining microarray, proteomics, and biochemical analyses, it is shown that the chronic manganese exposure rewires diverse regulatory and metabolic pathways and hypothesize that affected energy metabolism is the primal cause of manganes toxicity.
Abstract: Excessive manganese exposure is toxic, but a comprehensive biochemical picture of this assault is poorly understood. Whether oxidative stress or reduced energy metabolism under manganese exposure causes toxicity is still a debate. To address this, we chose Δmnt P Escherichia coli, a highly manganese-sensitive strain, in this study. Combining microarray, proteomics, and biochemical analyses, we show that the chronic manganese exposure rewires diverse regulatory and metabolic pathways. Manganese stress affects protein and other macromolecular stability, and envelope biogenesis. Most importantly, manganese exposure disrupts both iron-sulfur cluster and heme-enzyme biogenesis by depleting cellular iron level. Therefore, the compromised function of the iron-dependent enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and electron transport chain impede ATP synthesis, leading to severe energy deficiency. Manganese stress also evokes reactive oxygen species, inducing oxidative stress. However, suppressing oxidative stress does not improve oxidative phosphorylation and cell growth. On the contrary, iron supplementation resumed cell growth stimulating oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, we hypothesize that affected energy metabolism is the primal cause of manganese toxicity.
TL;DR: Killed P. acnes is capable of inducing inflammation in skin suggesting that therapies that have both bactericidal and anti‐inflammatory effects may result in a more effective treatment of patients with acne than treatments that are bactericidal alone.
Abstract: The etiology of acne is a complex process, and acne is one of the most common skin disorders affecting millions of people. The pathogenesis of acne is closely associated with the bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes which was previously known as Corynebacterium parvum. Both viable and non-viable P. acnes/C. parvum have been shown to induce an immunostimulatory effect in vivo, suggesting that even dead bacteria continue to activate an inflammatory response. Acne treatments with lasers or devices, induce a bactericidal effect through heat generation which may not address the immunogenic activity of P. acnes and the resulting acne inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether killed P. acnes is capable of inducing an inflammatory response and therefore could be a contributing factor in acne. Direct heat treatment of P. acnes cultures with temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 80 degrees C reduced P. acnes viability. Both viable and heat-killed P. acnes activated the p38 MAP kinase and its downstream substrate Hsp27. Stimulating keratinocytes with normal and heat-inactivated P. acnes resulted in an induction of proinflammatory nitric oxide and IL-8 production. Thus killed P. acnes is capable of inducing inflammation in skin suggesting that therapies that have both bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects may result in a more effective treatment of patients with acne than treatments that are bactericidal alone.
TL;DR: The Ras/Raf/extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in almost all cell functions and therefore requires exquisite control of its spatiotemporal activity.
Abstract: The Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in almost all cell functions and therefore requires exquisite control of its spatiotemporal activity. Depending on the cell type and stimulus, ERK activity will mediate different antiproliferative events, such as apoptosis, autophagy and senescence in vitro and in vivo. ERK activity can promote either intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways by induction of mitochondrial cytochrome c release or caspase-8 activation, permanent cell cycle arrest or autophagic vacuolization. These unusual effects require sustained ERK activity in specific subcellular compartments and could depend on the presence of reactive oxygen species. We will summarize the mechanisms involved in Ras/Raf/ERK antiproliferative functions.
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: Compare your culture to one of the cultures discussed in this unit, and list as many similarities and differences between the two as you can think of.
Abstract: Compare your culture to one of the cultures discussed in this unit. On a sheet of paper, list the cultures you are comparing and make one column titled “similarities,” and a second column titled “differences.” Now, list as many similarities and differences between the two as you can think of. Are there more similarities or differences between the two cultures you selected? Have you ever met anyone from this culture? How can you use this information to build greater respect between cultures?
TL;DR: Nitric oxide generated by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been described to have beneficial microbicidal, antiviral, antiparasital, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral effects.
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), generated by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has been described to have beneficial microbicidal, antiviral, antiparasital, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral effects. However, aberrant iNOS induction at the wrong place or at the wrong time has detrimental consequences and seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. iNOS is primarily regulated at the expression level by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. iNOS expression can be induced in many cell types with suitable agents such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), cytokines, and other compounds. Pathways resulting in the induction of iNOS expression may vary in different cells or different species. Activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha, and thereby activation of the iNOS promoter, seems to be an essential step for iNOS induction in most cells. However, at least in the human system, also post-transcriptional mechanism are critically involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. The induction of iNOS can be inhibited by a wide variety of immunomodulatory compounds acting at the transcriptional levels and/or post-transcriptionally.
TL;DR: A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk and one small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity.
Abstract: Summary Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as ‘pomade acne’. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.
TL;DR: This review focuses on current understanding of the emerging biological functions of PLA₂s and related enzymes, which evolved along with eicosanoid receptors when vertebrates first appeared.
Abstract: Mammalian genomes encode genes for more than 30 phospholipase A₂s (PLA₂s) or related enzymes, which are subdivided into several classes including low-molecular-weight secreted PLA₂s (sPLA₂s), Ca²+-dependent cytosolic PLA₂s (cPLA₂s), Ca²+-independent PLA₂s (iPLA₂s), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAF-AHs), lysosomal PLA₂s, and a recently identified adipose-specific PLA. Of these, the intracellular cPLA₂ and iPLA₂ families and the extracellular sPLA₂ family are recognized as the "big three". From a general viewpoint, cPLA₂α (the prototypic cPLA₂ plays a major role in the initiation of arachidonic acid metabolism, the iPLA₂ family contributes to membrane homeostasis and energy metabolism, and the sPLA₂ family affects various biological events by modulating the extracellular phospholipid milieus. The cPLA₂ family evolved along with eicosanoid receptors when vertebrates first appeared, whereas the diverse branching of the iPLA₂ and sPLA₂ families during earlier eukaryote development suggests that they play fundamental roles in life-related processes. During the past decade, data concerning the unexplored roles of various PLA₂ enzymes in pathophysiology have emerged on the basis of studies using knockout and transgenic mice, the use of specific inhibitors, and information obtained from analysis of human diseases caused by mutations in PLA₂ genes. This review focuses on current understanding of the emerging biological functions of PLA₂s and related enzymes.