Author

# Russel E. Caflisch

Other affiliations: Stanford University, University of California, University of California, Berkeley ...read more

Bio: Russel E. Caflisch is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topics: Boltzmann equation & Monte Carlo method. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 185 publications receiving 9157 citations. Previous affiliations of Russel E. Caflisch include Stanford University & University of California.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for integration problems, including convergence theory, sampling methods and variance reduction techniques, and showed Monte Carlo to be very robust but also slow.

Abstract: Monte Carlo is one of the most versatile and widely used numerical methods. Its convergence rate, O(N−1/2), is independent of dimension, which shows Monte Carlo to be very robust but also slow. This article presents an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for integration problems, including convergence theory, sampling methods and variance reduction techniques. Accelerated convergence for Monte Carlo quadrature is attained using quasi-random (also called low-discrepancy) sequences, which are a deterministic alternative to random or pseudo-random sequences. The points in a quasi-random sequence are correlated to provide greater uniformity. The resulting quadrature method, called quasi-Monte Carlo, has a convergence rate of approximately O((logN)kN−1). For quasi-Monte Carlo, both theoretical error estimates and practical limitations are presented. Although the emphasis in this article is on integration, Monte Carlo simulation of rarefied gas dynamics is also discussed. In the limit of small mean free path (that is, the fluid dynamic limit), Monte Carlo loses its effectiveness because the collisional distance is much less than the fluid dynamic length scale. Computational examples are presented throughout the text to illustrate the theory. A number of open problems are described.

1,708 citations

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498 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the performance of quasi-random and random Monte Carlo methods for multidimensional integrals with respect to variance, variation, smoothness, and dimension.

492 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors prove short time existence theorems for the Euler and Prandtl equations with analytic initial data in either two or three spatial dimensions, using abstract Cauchy-Kowalewski theorem.

Abstract: This is the first of two papers on the zero-viscosity limit for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a half-space. In this paper we prove short time existence theorems for the Euler and Prandtl equations with analytic initial data in either two or three spatial dimensions. The main technical tool in this analysis is the abstract Cauchy-Kowalewski theorem. For the Euler equations, the projection method is used in the primitive variables, to which the Cauchy-Kowalewski theorem is directly applicable. For the Prandtl equations, Cauchy-Kowalewski is applicable once the diffusion operator in the vertical direction is inverted.

397 citations

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TL;DR: This work has shown that for moderate or large s, there is an intermediate regime in which the discrepancy of a quasi-random sequence is almost exactly the same as that of a randomly chosen sequence.

Abstract: Quasi-random (also called low discrepancy) sequences are a deterministic alternative to random sequences for use in Monte Carlo methods, such as integration and particle simulations of transport processes. The error in uniformity for such a sequence of N points in the s-dimensional unit cube is measured by its discrepancy, which is of size $(\log N)^s N^{ - 1} $ for large N, as opposed to discrepancy of size $(\log \log N)^{1/2} N^{ - 1/2} $ for a random sequence (i.e., for almost any randomly chosen sequence). Several types of discrepancies, one of which is new, are defined and analyzed. A critical discussion of the theoretical bounds on these discrepancies is presented. Computations of discrepancies are presented for a wide choice of dimension s, number of points N, and different quasi-random sequences. In particular for moderate or large s, there is an intermediate regime in which the discrepancy of a quasi-random sequence is almost exactly the same as that of a randomly chosen sequence. A simplified p...

397 citations

##### Cited by

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Harvard University

^{1}, Brigham and Women's Hospital^{2}, University of Wisconsin-Madison^{3}, University of California, Berkeley^{4}, Technical University of Denmark^{5}, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai^{6}, Vienna University of Technology^{7}, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg^{8}, German Cancer Research Center^{9}, University of Milan^{10}, Johns Hopkins University^{11}, University of Washington^{12}, Scripps Research Institute^{13}, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research^{14}, University of Iowa^{15}TL;DR: Details of the aims and methods of Bioconductor, the collaborative creation of extensible software for computational biology and bioinformatics, and current challenges are described.

Abstract: The Bioconductor project is an initiative for the collaborative creation of extensible software for computational biology and bioinformatics. The goals of the project include: fostering collaborative development and widespread use of innovative software, reducing barriers to entry into interdisciplinary scientific research, and promoting the achievement of remote reproducibility of research results. We describe details of our aims and methods, identify current challenges, compare Bioconductor to other open bioinformatics projects, and provide working examples.

12,142 citations

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01 Jan 2003TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation, and compare simulation-assisted estimation procedures, including maximum simulated likelihood, method of simulated moments, and methods of simulated scores.

Abstract: This book describes the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation. Researchers use these statistical methods to examine the choices that consumers, households, firms, and other agents make. Each of the major models is covered: logit, generalized extreme value, or GEV (including nested and cross-nested logits), probit, and mixed logit, plus a variety of specifications that build on these basics. Simulation-assisted estimation procedures are investigated and compared, including maximum simulated likelihood, method of simulated moments, and method of simulated scores. Procedures for drawing from densities are described, including variance reduction techniques such as anithetics and Halton draws. Recent advances in Bayesian procedures are explored, including the use of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and its variant Gibbs sampling. No other book incorporates all these fields, which have arisen in the past 20 years. The procedures are applicable in many fields, including energy, transportation, environmental studies, health, labor, and marketing.

7,768 citations

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TL;DR: This paper shows empirically and theoretically that randomly chosen trials are more efficient for hyper-parameter optimization than trials on a grid, and shows that random search is a natural baseline against which to judge progress in the development of adaptive (sequential) hyper- parameter optimization algorithms.

Abstract: Grid search and manual search are the most widely used strategies for hyper-parameter optimization. This paper shows empirically and theoretically that randomly chosen trials are more efficient for hyper-parameter optimization than trials on a grid. Empirical evidence comes from a comparison with a large previous study that used grid search and manual search to configure neural networks and deep belief networks. Compared with neural networks configured by a pure grid search, we find that random search over the same domain is able to find models that are as good or better within a small fraction of the computation time. Granting random search the same computational budget, random search finds better models by effectively searching a larger, less promising configuration space. Compared with deep belief networks configured by a thoughtful combination of manual search and grid search, purely random search over the same 32-dimensional configuration space found statistically equal performance on four of seven data sets, and superior performance on one of seven. A Gaussian process analysis of the function from hyper-parameters to validation set performance reveals that for most data sets only a few of the hyper-parameters really matter, but that different hyper-parameters are important on different data sets. This phenomenon makes grid search a poor choice for configuring algorithms for new data sets. Our analysis casts some light on why recent "High Throughput" methods achieve surprising success--they appear to search through a large number of hyper-parameters because most hyper-parameters do not matter much. We anticipate that growing interest in large hierarchical models will place an increasing burden on techniques for hyper-parameter optimization; this work shows that random search is a natural baseline against which to judge progress in the development of adaptive (sequential) hyper-parameter optimization algorithms.

6,935 citations

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TL;DR: Van Kampen as mentioned in this paper provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable, and could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes.

Abstract: N G van Kampen 1981 Amsterdam: North-Holland xiv + 419 pp price Dfl 180 This is a book which, at a lower price, could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes, as well as those who just enjoy a beautifully written book. It provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable.

3,647 citations

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TL;DR: This work develops a novel framework to discover governing equations underlying a dynamical system simply from data measurements, leveraging advances in sparsity techniques and machine learning and using sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data.

Abstract: Extracting governing equations from data is a central challenge in many diverse areas of science and engineering. Data are abundant whereas models often remain elusive, as in climate science, neuroscience, ecology, finance, and epidemiology, to name only a few examples. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing equations from noisy measurement data. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions; this assumption holds for many physical systems in an appropriate basis. In particular, we use sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data. This results in parsimonious models that balance accuracy with model complexity to avoid overfitting. We demonstrate the algorithm on a wide range of problems, from simple canonical systems, including linear and nonlinear oscillators and the chaotic Lorenz system, to the fluid vortex shedding behind an obstacle. The fluid example illustrates the ability of this method to discover the underlying dynamics of a system that took experts in the community nearly 30 years to resolve. We also show that this method generalizes to parameterized systems and systems that are time-varying or have external forcing.

2,784 citations