Russell A. Green
Bio: Russell A. Green is an academic researcher from Virginia Tech. The author has contributed to research in topics: Liquefaction & Soil liquefaction. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 123 publications receiving 2430 citations. Previous affiliations of Russell A. Green include Valparaiso University & University of Auckland.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of observed geotechnical aspects of the 2011 Christchurch earthquake as well as some of the completed and on-going research investigations.
Abstract: SUMMARY The 22 February 2011, Mw6.2-6.3 Christchurch earthquake is the most costly earthquake to affect New Zealand, causing 181 fatalities and severely damaging thousands of residential and commercial buildings, and most of the city lifelines and infrastructure. This manuscript presents an overview of observed geotechnical aspects of this earthquake as well as some of the completed and on-going research investigations. A unique aspect, which is particularly emphasized, is the severity and spatial extent of liquefaction occurring in native soils. Overall, both the spatial extent and severity of liquefaction in the city was greater than in the preceding 4 th September 2010 Darfield earthquake, including numerous areas that liquefied in both events. Liquefaction and lateral spreading, variable over both large and short spatial scales, affected commercial structures in the Central Business District (CBD) in a variety of ways including: total and differential settlements and tilting; punching settlements of structures with shallow foundations; differential movements of components of complex structures; and interaction of adjacent structures via common foundation soils. Liquefaction was most severe in residential areas located to the east of the CBD as a result of stronger ground shaking due to the proximity to the causative fault, a high water table approximately 1m from the surface, and soils with composition and states of high susceptibility and potential for liquefaction. Total and differential settlements, and lateral movements, due to liquefaction and lateral spreading is estimated to have severely compromised 15,000 residential structures, the majority of which otherwise sustained only minor to moderate damage directly due to inertial loading from ground shaking. Liquefaction also had a profound effect on lifelines and other infrastructure, particularly bridge structures, and underground services. Minor damage was also observed at flood stop banks to the north of the city, which were more severely impacted in the 4 th September 2010 Darfield earthquake. Due to the large high-frequency ground motion in the Port hills numerous rock falls and landslides also occurred, resulting in several fatalities and rendering some residential areas uninhabitable.
TL;DR: The 2010 Darfield earthquake was geotechnical in nature, with liquefaction and lateral spreading being the principal culprits for the inflicted damage in areas close to major streams, rivers and wetlands as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: On 4 September 2010, a magnitude Mw 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region on the South Island of New Zealand. The epicentre of the earthquake was located in the Darfield area about 40 km west of the city of Christchurch. Extensive damage was inflicted to lifelines and residential houses due to widespread liquefaction and lateral spreading in areas close to major streams, rivers and wetlands throughout Christchurch and Kaiapoi. Unreinforced masonry buildings also suffered extensive damage throughout the region. Despite the severe damage to infrastructure and residential houses, fortunately, no deaths occurred and only two injuries were reported in this earthquake. From an engineering viewpoint, one may argue that the most significant aspects of the 2010 Darfield Earthquake were geotechnical in nature, with liquefaction and lateral spreading being the principal culprits for the inflicted damage. Following the earthquake, an intensive geotechnical reconnaissance was conducted to capture evidence and perishable data from this event. The surveys were performed on foot, by car and from a helicopter over a period of six days. A broad-brush field reconnaissance was conducted in the first two days, followed by pin-point investigations at specific locations including detailed site inspections and field testing using: Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT), Swedish Weight Sounding (SWS), and Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW). This paper summarizes the observations and preliminary findings from this early reconnaissance work.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the mechanical energy required to densify a unit volume of clean, loose sand using deep dynamic compaction, vibro-compaction, and explosive compaction.
Abstract: The state-of-practice for performing remedial ground densification and evaluating earthquake liquefaction potential of loose saturated sands have evolved relatively independent of each other. This is in spite of the fact that the induction of liquefaction is typically requisite for remedial ground densification of sands. Simple calculations are presented herein for estimating the mechanical energy required to densify a unit volume of clean, loose sand using deep dynamic compaction, vibro-compaction, and explosive compaction. These computer energies are compared with that required to induce liquefaction during an earthquake using the Green-Mitchell energy based liquefaction evaluation procedure. The comparison highlights the importance of the efficiency of the method in which the energy is imparted to the soil and the importance of the mode of dissipation of the imparted energy (e.g., possible modes of energy dissipation/expenditure include: breaking down of initial soil structure, ramming soil particles into denser packing, and radiating away from the treatment zone). Additionally, the comparison lays the preliminary groundwork for incorporating the vast knowledge base gained from fundamental studies on earthquake induced liquefaction into the design procedures of remedial ground densification techniques.
TL;DR: In this paper, the applicability of two simple models for predicting pore water pressure generation in nonplastic silty soil during cyclic loading was discussed, based on the results of approximately 150 cyclic triaxial tests.
Abstract: This paper discusses the applicability of two simple models for predicting pore water pressure generation in nonplastic silty soil during cyclic loading. The first model was developed by Seed et al. in the 1970s and relates the pore pressure generated to the cycle ratio, which is the ratio of the number of applied cycles of loading to the number of cycles required to cause liquefaction. The second model is the Green-Mitchell-Polito model proposed by Green et al. in 2000, which relates pore pressure generation to the energy dissipated within the soil. Based upon the results of approximately 150 cyclic triaxial tests, the writers show that both models are applicable to silty soils. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used for regression analyses to develop correlations for the necessary calibration parameters. The results show that the trends in both α and pseudoenergy capacity calibration parameters for the Seed et al. and Green et al. pore pressure generation models, respectively, differ significantly for...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings, mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there.
Abstract: Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions.
01 Aug 2001
TL;DR: The study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence, is concentrated on in this work.
Abstract: With digital equipment becoming increasingly networked, either on wired or wireless networks, for personal and professional use alike, distributed software systems have become a crucial element in information and communications technologies. The study of these systems forms the core of the ARLES' work, which is specifically concerned with defining new system software architectures, based on the use of emerging networking technologies. In this context, we concentrate on the study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence.
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this article, the spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratio) of microtremors measured at the ground surface has been used to estimate fundamental periods and amplification factors of a site, although this technique lacks theoretical background.
Abstract: The spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratio) of microtremors measured at the ground surface has been used to estimate fundamental periods and amplification factors of a site, although this technique lacks theoretical background. The aim of this article is to formulate the H/V technique in terms of the characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves, and to contribute to improve the technique. The improvement includes use of not only peaks but also troughs in the H/V ratio for reliable estimation of the period and use of a newly proposed smoothing function for better estimation of the amplification factor. The formulation leads to a simple formula for the amplification factor expressed with the H/V ratio. With microtremor data measured at 546 junior high schools in 23 wards of Tokyo, the improved technique is applied to mapping site periods and amplification factors in the area.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an update that corrects the shortcomings identified in those equations, which are primarily, but not exclusively, related to the model for the ground-motion variability.
Abstract: The true performance of ground-motion prediction equations is often not fully appreciated until they are used in practice for seismic hazard analyses and applied to a wide range of scenarios and exceedance levels. This has been the case for equations published recently for the prediction of peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground acceleration (PGA), and response spectral ordinates in Europe, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean (Akkar and Bommer 2007a,b). This paper presents an update that corrects the shortcomings identified in those equations, which are primarily, but not exclusively, related to the model for the ground-motion variability. Strong-motion recording networks in Europe and the Middle East were first installed much later than in the United States and Japan but have grown considerably over the last four decades. The databanks of strong-motion data have grown in parallel with the accelerograph networks, and in addition to national collections there have been concerted efforts over more than two decades to develop and maintain a European database of associated metadata ( e.g. , Ambraseys et al. 2004). As the database of strong-motion records from Europe, the Mediterranean region, and the Middle East has expanded, there have been two distinct trends in terms of developing empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs): equations derived from a large dataset covering several countries, generally of moderate-to-high seismicity; and equations derived from local databanks for application within national borders. We refer to the former as pan-European models, noting that this is for expedience since the equations are really derived for southern Europe, the Maghreb (North Africa), and the active areas of the Middle East. The history of the development of both pan-European and national equations is discussed by Bommer et al. (2010), who also review studies that consider the arguments for and against the existence of consistent regional …
TL;DR: In this article, a preliminary assessment of the near-source ground motions recorded in the Christchurch region is provided, which is interpreted based on source, path, and site effects, in order to emphasize the amplitude of the ground shaking and also elucidate the importance of local geotechnical and deep geologic structure on surface ground motions.
Abstract: On 22 February 2011 at 12:51 p.m. local time, a moment magnitude Mw 6.3 earthquake occurred beneath the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, causing an level of damage and human casualties unparalleled in the country's history. Compared to the preceding 4 September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake, which occurred approximately 30 km to the west of Christchurch, the close proximity of the 22 February event led to ground motions of significantly higher amplitude in the densely populated regions of Christchurch. As a result of these significantly larger ground motions, structures in general, and commercial structures in the central business district in particular, were subjected to severe seismic demands and, combined with the event timing, structural collapses accounted for the majority of the 181 casualties (New Zealand Police 2011). This manuscript provides a preliminary assessment of the near-source ground motions recorded in the Christchurch region. Particular attention is given to the observed spatial distribution of ground motions, which is interpreted based on source, path, and site effects. Comparison is also made of the observed ground motion response spectra with those of the 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake and those used in seismic design in order to emphasize the amplitude of the ground shaking and also elucidate the importance of local geotechnical and deep geologic structure on surface ground motions. New Zealand resides on the boundary of the Pacific and Australian plates (Figure 1) and its active tectonics are dominated by: 1) oblique subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Australian plate along the Hikurangi trough in the North Island; 2) oblique subduction of the Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate along the Puysegur trench in the southwest of the South Island; and 3) oblique, right-lateral slip along numerous crustal faults in the axial tectonic belt, of which the …