Author

# S. Balachandar

Other affiliations: University of Paris, Florida Institute of Technology, Brown University ...read more

Bio: S. Balachandar is an academic researcher from University of Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Reynolds number. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 341 publications receiving 13490 citations. Previous affiliations of S. Balachandar include University of Paris & Florida Institute of Technology.

Topics: Turbulence, Reynolds number, Particle, Vortex, Drag

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, the evolution of a single hairpin vortex-like structure in the mean turbulent field of a low-Reynolds-number channel flow is studied by direct numerical simulation, and the detailed mechanisms for this upstream process are determined, and they are generally similar to the mechanisms proposed by Smith et al. (1991), with some notable differences in the details.

Abstract: The evolution of a single hairpin vortex-like structure in the mean turbulent field of a low-Reynolds-number channel flow is studied by direct numerical simulation. The structure of the initial three-dimensional vortex is extracted from the two-point spatial correlation of the velocity field by linear stochastic estimation given a second-quadrant ejection event vector. Initial vortices having vorticity that is weak relative to the mean vorticity evolve gradually into omega-shaped vortices that persist for long times and decay slowly. As reported in Zhou, Adrian & Balachandar (1996), initial vortices that exceed a threshold strength relative to the mean flow generate new hairpin vortices upstream of the primary vortex. The detailed mechanisms for this upstream process are determined, and they are generally similar to the mechanisms proposed by Smith et al. (1991), with some notable differences in the details. It has also been found that new hairpins generate downstream of the primary hairpin, thereby forming, together with the upstream hairpins, a coherent packet of hairpins that propagate coherently. This is consistent with the experimental observations of Meinhart & Adrian (1995). The possibility of autogeneration above a critical threshold implies that hairpin vortices in fully turbulent fields may occur singly, but they more often occur in packets. The hairpins also generate quasi-streamwise vortices to the side of the primary hairpin legs. This mechanism bears many similarities to the mechanisms found by Brooke & Hanratty (1993) and Bernard, Thomas & Handler (1993). It provides a means by which new quasi-streamwise vortices, and, subsequently, new hairpin vortices can populate the near-wall layer.

1,994 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the current state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques for turbulent dispersed multiphase flows, their strengths and limitations, and opportunities for the future can be found in this paper.

Abstract: Turbulent dispersed multiphase flows are common in many engineering and environmental applications. The stochastic nature of both the carrier-phase turbulence and the dispersed-phase distribution makes the problem of turbulent dispersed multiphase flow far more complex than its single-phase counterpart. In this article we first review the current state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques for turbulent dispersed multiphase flows, their strengths and limitations, and opportunities for the future. The review then focuses on three important aspects of turbulent dispersed multiphase flows: the preferential concentration of particles, droplets, and bubbles; the effect of turbulence on the coupling between the dispersed and carrier phases; and modulation of carrier-phase turbulence due to the presence of particles and bubbles.

1,401 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new measure of spiralling compactness of material orbits in vortices is introduced and using this measure a new local vortex identification criterion and requirements for a vortex core are proposed.

Abstract: We analyse the currently popular vortex identification criteria that are based on point-wise analysis of the velocity gradient tensor. A new measure of spiralling compactness of material orbits in vortices is introduced and using this measure a new local vortex identification criterion and requirements for a vortex core are proposed. The inter-relationships between the different criteria are explored analytically and in a few flow examples, using both zero and non-zero thresholds for the identification parameter. These inter-relationships provide a new interpretation of the various criteria in terms of the local flow kinematics. A canonical turbulent flow example is studied, and it is observed that all the criteria, given the proposed usage of threshold, result in remarkably similar looking vortical structures. A unified interpretation based on local flow kinematics is offered for when similarity or differences can be expected in the vortical structures educed using the different criteria.

833 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the onset of three-dimensionalality in an otherwise two-dimensional periodic wake of a square cylinder and employed the Floquet stability analysis to extract the different modes of 3D instabilities.

Abstract: In this study we investigate the onset of three-dimensionality in an otherwise two-dimensional periodic wake of a square cylinder. Floquet stability analysis is employed to extract the different modes of three-dimensional instabilities. It is observed that the three-dimensional transition process for a square cylinder is similar to that of a circular cylinder. Most notably, there is a long-wavelength (mode A) three-dimensional disturbance that becomes unstable first at a Reynolds number of about 161, followed by a short-wavelength (mode B) three-dimensional disturbance that becomes unstable at a Reynolds number of about 190. In addition, a third intermediate-wavelength mode is also observed to become unstable at around Re=200. Unlike modes A and B, the intermediate-wavelength mode is subharmonic with a period of twice the shedding period of the two-dimensional base state. This mode also breaks the reflection translation symmetry observed in the other two modes and as a result appears with multiplicity two. The space–time symmetries of the three modes are explored in detail.

326 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a variant of the Eulerian method for two-phase flow that is valid for small particle response time τ is proposed. But it is not suitable for the case of turbophoresis.

276 citations

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01 May 1993

TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.

Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

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28,685 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: Microfabricated integrated circuits revolutionized computation by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar promise for the large-scale automation of chemistry and biology, suggesting the possibility of numerous experiments performed rapidly and in parallel, while consuming little reagent. While it is too early to tell whether such a vision will be realized, significant progress has been achieved, and various applications of significant scientific and practical interest have been developed. Here a review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena. Specifically, this review explores the Reynolds number Re, addressing inertial effects; the Peclet number Pe, which concerns convective and diffusive transport; the capillary number Ca expressing the importance of interfacial tension; the Deborah, Weissenberg, and elasticity numbers De, Wi, and El, describing elastic effects due to deformable microstructural elements like polymers; the Grashof and Rayleigh numbers Gr and Ra, describing density-driven flows; and the Knudsen number, describing the importance of noncontinuum molecular effects. Furthermore, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean that the influence of boundaries is typically significant. A variety of strategies have been developed to manipulate fluids by exploiting boundary effects; among these are electrokinetic effects, acoustic streaming, and fluid-structure interactions. The goal is to describe the physics behind the rich variety of fluid phenomena occurring on the nanoliter scale using simple scaling arguments, with the hopes of developing an intuitive sense for this occasionally counterintuitive world.

4,044 citations

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TL;DR: A review of wake vortex dynamics can be found in this article, with a focus on the three-dimensional aspects of nominally two-dimensional wake flows, as well as the discovery of several new phenomena in wakes.

Abstract: Since the review of periodic flow phenomena by Berger & Wille (1972) in this journal, over twenty years ago, there has been a surge of activity regarding bluff body wakes. Many of the questions regarding wake vortex dynamics from the earlier review have now been answered in the literature, and perhaps an essential key to our new understandings (and indeed to new questions) has been the recent focus, over the past eight years, on the three-dimensional aspects of nominally two-dimensional wake flows. New techniques in experiment, using laser-induced fluorescence and PIV (Particle-Image-Velocimetry), are vigorously being applied to wakes, but interestingly, several of the new discoveries have come from careful use of classical methods. There is no question that strides forward in understanding of the wake problem are being made possible by ongoing three- dimensional direct numerical simulations, as well as by the surprisingly successful use of analytical modeling in these flows, and by secondary stability analyses. These new developments, and the discoveries of several new phenomena in wakes, are presented in this review.

3,206 citations