S. H. Park
Bio: S. H. Park is an academic researcher from Brigham Young University. The author has contributed to research in topics: AMP-activated protein kinase & Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 3 publications receiving 361 citations.
TL;DR: Data provide the first evidence of a direct link between extent of phosphorylation of these proteins at sites recognized by the antibodies and activity of the enzymes in electrically stimulated muscle and in muscle of rats running on the treadmill.
Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated during muscle contraction in response to the increase in AMP and decrease in phosphocreatine (PCr). Once activated, AMPK has been proposed to phosph...
TL;DR: In gastrocnemius muscle, all isoforms of AMPK subunits were significantly increased in rats given thyroid hormones for 3 wk vs. those treated with PTU, which provides evidence that skeletal muscle AM PK subunit and ACC expression is partially under the control of thyroid hormones.
Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) consists of three subunits: α, β, and γ. Two isoforms exist for the α-subunit (α1 and α2), two for the β-subunit (β1 and β2), and three for the γ-subunit (γ1, γ2...
TL;DR: Thyroid state appears to be one important factor controlling expression of these proteins in skeletal muscle.
Abstract: Evidence is accumulating for roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in controlling glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation and gene expression in skeletal muscle. Relatively little is known, however, about the control of expression of the AMPK subunit isoforms. Marked differences are noted in subunit expression as a function of muscle fibre type. Expression of the gamma3 subunit isoform increases in fast-twitch red fibres of the rat in response to training. All subunit isoforms are expressed to a lesser extent in rats treated with propylthiouracil (PTU; an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis) for 3 weeks compared with rats given excess thyroid hormones for 3 weeks. An approx. 2-fold increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase was observed in gastrocnemius of hyperthyroid rats compared with experimentally hypothyroid rats. Thyroid state therefore appears to be one important factor controlling expression of these proteins in skeletal muscle.
TL;DR: It is shown that polyphenols, including resveratrol and the synthetic polyphenol S17834, increase SIRT1 deacetylase activity, LKB1 phosphorylation at Ser428, and AMPK activity, which suggests that Sirt1 functions as a novel upstream regulator for L KB1/AMPK signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte lipid metabolism.
Abstract: Resveratrol may protect against metabolic disease through activating SIRT1 deacetylase. Because we have recently defined AMPK activation as a key mechanism for the beneficial effects of polyphenols on hepatic lipid accumulation, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetic mice, we hypothesize that polyphenol-activated SIRT1 acts upstream of AMPK signaling and hepatocellular lipid metabolism. Here we show that polyphenols, including resveratrol and the synthetic polyphenol S17834, increase SIRT1 deacetylase activity, LKB1 phosphorylation at Ser428, and AMPK activity. Polyphenols substantially prevent the impairment in phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), elevation in expression of FAS (fatty acid synthase), and lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. These effects of polyphenols are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of SIRT1, suggesting that the stimulation of AMPK and lipid-lowering effect of polyphenols depend on SIRT1 activity. Furthermore, adenoviral overexpression of SIRT1 stimulates the basal AMPK signaling in HepG2 cells and in the mouse liver. AMPK activation by SIRT1 also protects against FAS induction and lipid accumulation caused by high glucose. Moreover, LKB1, but not CaMKKβ, is required for activation of AMPK by polyphenols and SIRT1. These findings suggest that SIRT1 functions as a novel upstream regulator for LKB1/AMPK signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte lipid metabolism. Targeting SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK signaling by polyphenols may have potential therapeutic implications for dyslipidemia and accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes and age-related diseases.
TL;DR: It is revealed that inactivation of hepatic AMPK is a key event in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia in diabetes, point to a novel mechanism of action of polyphenols to lower lipids by activating AMPK, and emphasize a new therapeutic avenue to benefit hyper Lipidemia and atherosclerosis specifically in diabetes.
Abstract: Because polyphenols may have beneficial effects on dyslipidemia, which accelerates atherosclerosis in diabetes, we examined the effect of polyphenols on hepatocellular AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and lipid levels, as well as hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis in type 1 diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice (DMLDLR(-/-)). In HepG2 hepatocytes, polyphenols, including resveratrol (a major polyphenol in red wine), apigenin, and S17834 (a synthetic polyphenol), increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and they increased activity of AMPK with 200 times the potency of metformin. The polyphenols also prevented the lipid accumulation that occurred in HepG2 cells exposed to high glucose, and their ability to do so was mimicked and abrogated, respectively, by overexpression of constitutively active and dominant-negative AMPK mutants. Furthermore, treatment of DMLDLR(-/-) mice with S17834 prevented the decrease in AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and the lipid accumulation in the liver, and it also inhibited hyperlipidemia and the acceleration of aortic lesion development. These studies 1) reveal that inactivation of hepatic AMPK is a key event in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia in diabetes, 2) point to a novel mechanism of action of polyphenols to lower lipids by activating AMPK, and 3) emphasize a new therapeutic avenue to benefit hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis specifically in diabetes via activating AMPK.
TL;DR: Thyroid hormone–induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.
Abstract: Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here we demonstrate that either whole-body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipogenic pathway in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) prevents CNS-mediated activation of BAT by thyroid hormone and reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. Similarly, inhibition of thyroid hormone receptors in the VMH reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. This regulatory mechanism depends on AMPK inactivation, as genetic inhibition of this enzyme in the VMH of euthyroid rats induces feeding-independent weight loss and increases expression of thermogenic markers in BAT. These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.
TL;DR: This review will summarize the structural information that is now available for both the BC and CT enzymes, as well as the molecular mechanism of action of potent ACC inhibitors.
Abstract: Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism in most living organisms. Mice deficient in ACC2 have continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced body fat and body weight, validating this enzyme as a target for drug development against obesity, diabetes and other symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. ACC is a biotin-dependent enzyme and catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA through its two catalytic activities, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT). ACC is a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes, whereas it is a large, multi-domain enzyme in most eukaryotes. The activity of the enzyme can be controlled at the transcriptional level as well as by small molecule modulators and covalent modification. This review will summarize the structural information that is now available for both the BC and CT enzymes, as well as the molecular mechanism of action of potent ACC inhibitors. The current intense research on these enzymes could lead to the development of novel therapies against metabolic syndrome and other diseases.
TL;DR: Results indicate that ACC beta phosphorylation is especially sensitive to exercise and tightly coupled to AMPK signaling and that AMPK activation does not depend on AMPK kinase activation during exercise.
Abstract: The effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and substrate metabolism was examined in eight men cycling for 20 min at each of three sequential intensities: low (40 +/- 2% VO(2) peak), medium (59 +/- 1% VO(2) peak), and high (79 +/- 1% VO(2) peak). Muscle free AMP/ATP ratio only increased at the two higher exercise intensities (P < 0.05). AMPK alpha 1 (1.5-fold) and AMPK alpha 2 (5-fold) activities increased from low to medium intensity, with AMPK alpha 2 activity increasing further from medium to high intensity. The upstream AMPK kinase activity was substantial at rest and only increased 50% with exercise, indicating that, initially, signaling through AMPK did not require AMPK kinase posttranslational modification. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-beta phosphorylation was sensitive to exercise, increasing threefold from rest to low intensity, whereas neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) micro phosphorylation was only observed at the higher exercise intensities. Glucose disappearance (tracer) did not increase from rest to low intensity, but increased sequentially from low to medium to high intensity. Calculated fat oxidation increased from rest to low intensity in parallel with ACC beta phosphorylation, then declined during high intensity. These results indicate that ACC beta phosphorylation is especially sensitive to exercise and tightly coupled to AMPK signaling and that AMPK activation does not depend on AMPK kinase activation during exercise.