S. P. Cheng
Bio: S. P. Cheng is an academic researcher from Nanjing University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wastewater & Fermentation. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 7 publications receiving 302 citations.
TL;DR: In order to investigate the contamination levels of trace metals, surface water samples were collected from six regions along Yangtze River in Nanjing Section and Hazard Quotients of all metals were lower than unity, except As and Cd, suggesting that those two metals have potential adverse effects on local residents.
Abstract: In order to investigate the contamination levels of trace metals, surface water samples were collected from six regions along Yangtze River in Nanjing Section. The concentrations of trace metals (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Total concentrations of the metals in the water samples ranged from 825.1 to 950.4 μg/L. The result was compared with international water quality guidelines. Seven metals levels were above the permissible limit as prescribed by guidelines. A preliminary risk assessment was then carried out to determine the human health risk via calculating Hazard Quotient and carcinogenic risk of the metals. Hazard Quotients of all metals were lower than unity, except As. The carcinogenic risk of As and Cd was higher than 10−6, suggesting that those two metals have potential adverse effects on local residents.
TL;DR: In this article, a simplified environmental biological model has been developed based on biodegradation kinetics correlation to regulate and optimize wastewater treatment system of activated sludge process, all parameters included in the model are calibrated in accordance with reference data and experimental results.
Abstract: A simplified environmental biological model has been developed based on biodegradation kinetics correlation to regulate and optimize wastewater treatment system of activated sludge process. All parameters included in the model are calibrated in accordance with reference data and experimental results and good agreements are achieved between calculated results and reference data or experimental results. The minimum bioreactor volume is used as objective function in the model and errors between optimal minimum volume of the model and each reported result of three references are found to be no more than 8.63 % after validation. Comparisons between optimal results and experimental data demonstrate that the deviations are negligible. The optimal minimum volume is 9.21 m3 with the error of 6.40 % to the practical bioreactor volume of a pilot treatment system. The environmental biological model has been applied to economically evaluate a former treatment system with native bacterium YZ1 and four operation periods of the pilot system with functional strain Fhhh compared with YZ1, Fhhh possesses higher biodegradation ability in purified terephthalic acid wastewater and a broader economic potential in the field of wastewater treatment.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the removal of 24 semivolatile organic compounds in Yangtze River (China) source water treated by six biofilters using different backwashing methods.
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the removal of 24 semivolatile organic compounds in Yangtze River (China) source water treated by six biofilters using different backwashing methods. Health risks induced by the pollutants in the influent and effluent water were also assessed based on the chemical detections. Comparatively, the biofilter backwashed with both air (15 m/h, 3 min) and water (8 m/h, 5 min) was most efficient in removing semivolatile organic compounds and reducing health risk. PCR-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis showed that backwashing alterations posed considerable influences on microbial community structure in the six biofilters. About 72.4 % of di-n-butyl phthalate and 81.8 % of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (two main semivolatile organic compounds in the river water) were removed under the optimal backwashing conditions. However, in the effluent of each biofilter, non-carcinogenetic risks of 2,6-dinitrotoluene and bis[2-ethylhexyl]phthalate and carcinogenetic risks of dibenz[a,h]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene did not reach safety levels, revealing that these pollutants in the source water deserve more public health concerns. This study might serve as a basis for biofiltration process optimization and also as a benchmark for the authorities to reduce the health risk induced by exposure to the hazardous pollutants.
TL;DR: Results of ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children in the current analyzed review showed that As is the major contaminant, and remediation techniques such as the introduction of aquatic phytoremediation plant species and adsorbents should be included in land management plans in order to reduce human risks.
Abstract: Water is polluted by increasing activities of population and the necessity to provide them with goods and services that use water as a vital resource. The contamination of water due to heavy metals (HMs) is a big concern for humankind; however, global studies related to this topic are scarce. Thus, the current review assesses the content of HMs in surface water bodies throughout the world from 1994 to 2019. To achieve this goal, multivariate analyses were applied in order to determine the possible sources of HMs. Among the analyzed HMs in a total of 147 publications, the average content of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As and Cd exceeded the permissible limits suggested by WHO and USEPA. The results of the heavy metal pollution index, evaluation index, the degree of contamination, water pollution and toxicity load showed that the examined water bodies are highly polluted by HMs. The results of median lethal toxicity index showed maximum toxicity in As, Co, Cr and Ni in the surface water bodies. Results of ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children in the current analyzed review showed that As is the major contaminant. Moreover, Cr, Ni, As and Cd showed values that could be considered as a high risk for cancer generation via the ingestion pathway as compared to the dermal route. It is recommended that remediation techniques such as the introduction of aquatic phytoremediation plant species and adsorbents should be included in land management plans in order to reduce human risks.
TL;DR: Assessment of trace metals in surface water samples would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.
Abstract: Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005–2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10−4, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
18 Sep 1978
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of discs mounted on a common shaft are used to extract impurities from a wastewater treatment process, and activated carbon is added at each disc to improve the operating characteristics of the biological contactor.
Abstract: The invention relates to a wastewater treatment process. In one embodiment, introducing raw sewage in a biological contactor 22 having a series of discs 24 mounted on a common shaft 25. To the wastewater stream an adsorbent capable of adsorbing impurities from the liquid. This adsorbent is, for example activated carbon is added at 26. The addition of this adsorbent improves the operating characteristics of the biological contactor and the solids were removed accumulated on the contactor at a rate equivalent to the rate at which these solids accumulate.
TL;DR: The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the river water is unsuitable for drinking and a health risk assessment suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health.
Abstract: A total of 211 water samples were collected from 53 key sampling points from 5-10th July 2013 at four different depths (0m, 2m, 4m, 8m) and at different sites in the Huaihe River, Anhui, China. These points monitored for 18 parameters (water temperature, pH, TN, TP, TOC, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Mn, B, Fe, Al, Mg, and Ba). The spatial variability, contamination sources and health risk of trace elements as well as the river water quality were investigated. Our results were compared with national (CSEPA) and international (WHO, USEPA) drinking water guidelines, revealing that Zn, Cd and Pb were the dominant pollutants in the water body. Application of different multivariate statistical approaches, including correlation matrix and factor/principal component analysis (FA/PCA), to assess the origins of the elements in the Huaihe River, identified three source types that accounted for 79.31% of the total variance. Anthropogenic activities were considered to contribute much of the Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Mn via industrial waste, coal combustion, and vehicle exhaust; Ba, B, Cr and Cu were controlled by mixed anthropogenic and natural sources, and Mg, Fe and Al had natural origins from weathered rocks and crustal materials. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify the 53 sample points into three groups of water pollution, high pollution, moderate pollution, and low pollution, reflecting influences from tributaries, power plants and vehicle exhaust, and agricultural activities, respectively. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the water in the Huaihe River is unsuitable for drinking. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient and index (HQ/HI) recommended by the USEPA suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors collected past sampling data on total concentrations of 12 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Fe, Mn, As, and Co) in surface water bodies, i.e., 168 rivers and 71 lakes, from 1972 to 2017.
Abstract: This study collected past sampling data on total concentrations of 12 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Fe, Mn, As, and Co) in surface water bodies, i.e., 168 rivers and 71 lakes, from 1972 to 2017. The intent was to investigate the levels and sources of heavy metal pollution across five decades and five continents. Mean heavy metal concentrations in global river and lake water, and the number of heavy metals with concentrations greater than the published threshold limits as per the standards of both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were generally lower in the 1970s and 1980s than in the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s. Over time, heavy metal pollution in surface water has changed from single metal pollution to mixed metal pollution. Heavy metal concentrations in water, and the number of heavy metals with concentrations above the threshold limits for both WHO and USEPA standards were lower in the developed countries of Europe and North America, and higher in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. Over time, the main sources of metal pollution have changed from mining and manufacturing to rock weathering and waste discharge. The main metal sources differed across the five continents, with fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, being dominant in Africa. Mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, were dominant in Asia and Europe. Mining and manufacturing, along with fertilizer and pesticide use, were dominant sources in North America, while four sources (mining and manufacturing, fertilizer and pesticide use, rock weathering, and waste discharge) were responsible for the majority of heavy metal pollution in the river and lake water bodies of South America. Additionally, implementing rigorous standards on metal emissions and recycling metals from wastewater are effective for controlling heavy metal source pollution.