Bio: S. Roth is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Carbon nanotube & Polyacetylene. The author has an hindex of 44, co-authored 281 publication(s) receiving 25195 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
30 Oct 2006-Physical Review Letters
TL;DR: This work shows that graphene's electronic structure is captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with the number of layers, and allows unambiguous, high-throughput, nondestructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area.
Abstract: Graphene is the two-dimensional building block for carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality We show that its electronic structure is captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with the number of layers The D peak second order changes in shape, width, and position for an increasing number of layers, reflecting the change in the electron bands via a double resonant Raman process The G peak slightly down-shifts This allows unambiguous, high-throughput, nondestructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area
TL;DR: These studies by transmission electron microscopy reveal that individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or air are not perfectly flat: they exhibit intrinsic microscopic roughening such that the surface normal varies by several degrees and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm.
Abstract: Graphene — a recently isolated one-atom-thick layered form of graphite — is a hot topic in the materials science and condensed matter physics communities, where it is proving to be a popular model system for investigation. An experiment involving individual graphene sheets suspended over a microscale scaffold has allowed structure determination using transmission electron microscopy and diffraction, perhaps paving the way towards an answer to the question of why graphene can exist at all. The 'two-dimensional' sheets, it seems, are not flat, but wavy. The undulations are less pronounced in a two-layer system, and disappear in multilayer samples. Learning more about this 'waviness' may reveal what makes these extremely thin carbon membranes so stable. Investigations of individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or in air reveal that the membranes are not perfectly flat, but exhibit an intrinsic waviness, such that the surface normal varies by several degrees, and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm. The recent discovery of graphene has sparked much interest, thus far focused on the peculiar electronic structure of this material, in which charge carriers mimic massless relativistic particles1,2,3. However, the physical structure of graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice—is also puzzling. On the one hand, graphene appears to be a strictly two-dimensional material, exhibiting such a high crystal quality that electrons can travel submicrometre distances without scattering. On the other hand, perfect two-dimensional crystals cannot exist in the free state, according to both theory and experiment4,5,6,7,8,9. This incompatibility can be avoided by arguing that all the graphene structures studied so far were an integral part of larger three-dimensional structures, either supported by a bulk substrate or embedded in a three-dimensional matrix1,2,3,9,10,11,12. Here we report on individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or air. These membranes are only one atom thick, yet they still display long-range crystalline order. However, our studies by transmission electron microscopy also reveal that these suspended graphene sheets are not perfectly flat: they exhibit intrinsic microscopic roughening such that the surface normal varies by several degrees and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm. The atomically thin single-crystal membranes offer ample scope for fundamental research and new technologies, whereas the observed corrugations in the third dimension may provide subtle reasons for the stability of two-dimensional crystals13,14,15.
18 Sep 2002-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: In this article, alternating current and direct current (DC) conductivities have been measured in polymer-nanotube composite thin films for a range of concentrations of multi-wall nanotubes in two polymer hosts.
Abstract: Alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc) conductivities have been measured in polymer-nanotube composite thin films. This was carried out for a range of concentrations of multiwall nanotubes in two polymer hosts, poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxyp-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) and polyvinylalcohol (PVA). In all cases the dc conductivity σDC was ohmic in the voltage range studied. In general the ac conductivity displayed two distinct regions, a frequency independent region of magnitude σ0 at low frequency and a frequency dependent region at higher frequency. Both σDC and σ0 followed a percolation scaling law of the form σ∝(p−pc)t with pc=0.055% by mass and t=1.36. This extrapolates to a conductivity of 1×10−3 S/m for 100% nanotube content. Such a low value reflects the presence of a thick polymer coating, resulting in poor electrical connection between tubes. This leads to the suggestion that charge transport is controlled by fluctuation induced tunneling. In the high frequency regime the cond...
01 Jul 2007-Solid State Communications
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction study of the thinnest possible membrane, a single layer of carbon atoms suspended in vacuum and attached only at its edges, is presented.
Abstract: We present a detailed transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction study of the thinnest possible membrane, a single layer of carbon atoms suspended in vacuum and attached only at its edges. Membranes consisting of two graphene layers are also reported. We find that the membranes exhibit random microscopic curvature that is strongest in single-layer membranes. A direct visualization of the roughness is presented for two-layer membranes where we used the variation of diffracted intensities with the local orientation of the membrane.
15 Oct 2005-Applied Surface Science
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of transparency and conductivity at room temperature of different CNT material and observed a surface resistivity of 1 kΩ/sq which is already a promising value for various applications.
Abstract: Thin networks of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are sprayed onto glass or plastic substrates in order to obtain conductive transparent coatings. Transparency and conductivity at room temperature of different CNT material are evaluated. CNT coatings maintain their properties under mechanical stress, even after folding the substrate. At a transparency of 90% for visible light we observe a surface resistivity of 1 kΩ/sq which is already a promising value for various applications.
01 Mar 2007-Nature Materials
TL;DR: Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments.
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
14 Jan 2009-Reviews of Modern Physics
TL;DR: In this paper, the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations, are discussed.
Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
TL;DR: This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.
Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have zero effective mass, and can travel for micrometers without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a benchtop experiment. This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.