Bio: S. Yılmaz is an academic researcher from Adana Science and Technology University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wurtzite crystal structure & Band gap. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 36 publications receiving 750 citations. Previous affiliations of S. Yılmaz include Dublin City University & Karadeniz Technical University.
TL;DR: In this article, a series of Cr-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were fabricated by a spray pyrolysis method, and X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed that the undoped and Cr doped samples exhibit hexagonal crystal structure.
Abstract: A series of Cr-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were fabricated by a spray pyrolysis method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed that the undoped and Cr-doped ZnO microrods exhibit hexagonal crystal structure. Surface morphology analysis of the samples has revealed that pure ZnO sample has a hexagonal microrod morphology. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies, the Cr 2p3/2 binding energy is found to be 577.3 eV indicating that the electron binding energy of the Cr in ZnO is almost the same as the binding energy of Cr 3+ states in Cr 2 O 3 . The optical band gap E g decreases slightly from 3.26 to 3.15 eV with the increase of actual Cr molar fraction from x = 0.00 to 0.046 in ZnO. Photoluminescence studies at 10 K show that the incorporation of chromium leads to a relative increase of deep level band intensity. It was also observed that Cr doped samples clearly showed ferromagnetic behavior; however, 2.5 at.% Cr doped ZnO showed remnant magnetization higher than that of 1.1 at.% and 4.6 at.% Cr doped samples, while 4.6 at.% Cr doped ZnO samples had a coercive field higher than the other dopings.
TL;DR: In this article, Ni-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that these micro-rods had a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a highly c-axis preferred orientation.
Abstract: Undoped and Ni-doped ZnO micro-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates. Analysis of the samples with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that these micro-rod arrays had a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a highly c-axis preferred orientation. Photoluminescence studies at both 300 and 10 K show that the incorporation of nickel leads to a relative increase in the visible blue light band intensity. Magnetic measurements indicated that Ni-doped ZnO samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which is possibly related to the presence of point defects.
TL;DR: In this article, the concept of soft BCH-algebra is introduced and in the meantime some of their properties and structural characteristics are discussed and studied. And the theorems of homomorphic image and homomorphic pre-image of soft sets are given.
Abstract: In this paper, the concept of soft BCH-algebra is introduced and in the meantime, some of their properties and structural characteristics are discussed and studied. The bi-intersection, extended intersection, restricted union, ∨-union, ∧-intersection and cartesian product of the family of soft BCH-algebras and soft BCH-subalgebras are established. Also, the theorems of homomorphic image and homomorphic pre-image of soft sets are given. Moreover, the notion of soft BCHhomomorphism is introduced and its basic properties are studied.
TL;DR: In this article, the spray pyrolysis technique was used to prepare pure CdS, 4 at.% Al-doping and (4 at.%. Na)-co-doped thin films, which showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with the preferred orientation of (101).
Abstract: In the present study, the spray pyrolysis technique was used to prepare pure CdS, 4 at.% Al-doped CdS, 4 at.% Na-doped CdS and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doped CdS thin films. It was found from X-ray diffraction data that all the specimens showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with the preferred orientation of (101). Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that 4 at.% Al-doping caused a grain growth in the morphology of CdS thin films whereas the 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping led to porous structure with small grains. The band gap value of CdS thin films increased to 2.42 eV after 4 at.% Al-doping. However, it reduced to 2.30 eV and 2.08 eV for 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping, respectively. The room temperature photoluminescence measurements illustrated that the peak intensity of CdS thin films enhanced with 4 at.% Al-doping while 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping caused a decline in the intensity. The maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity were obtained for 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films, which is associated with the grain growth. Furthermore, (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping gave rise to a slight reduction in the carrier concentration and a slight increment in the resistivity. As a result, it can be said that 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films exhibited the best electrical and optical properties, which is important for the opto-electronic applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27°C) and post-deposition annealing temperature ( at 200, 300 and 400°C).
Abstract: The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films deposited by evaporation were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27 °C) and post-deposition annealing temperature (at 200, 300 and 400 °C). It was determined that films deposited at both substrate temperatures were polycrystalline in nature with zinc-blende structure and a strong (1 1 1) texture. A small Te peak was detected in XRD spectra for both substrate temperatures, indicating that as-deposited ZnTe films were slightly rich in Te. Larger grains and a tighter grain size distribution were obtained with increased substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the microstructures of the as-deposited films agreed well with the expectations from structure zone model. Post-deposition annealing induced further grain growth and tightened the grain size distribution. Annealing at 400 °C resulted in randomization in the texture of films deposited at both substrate temperatures. Optical spectroscopy results of the films indicated that the optical band gap value increased from 2.13 to 2.16 eV with increased substrate temperature. Increasing the annealing temperature sharpened the band-edge. Resistivity measurements showed that the resistivity of films deposited at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C were 32 Ω cm, and 1.0 × 104 Ω cm, respectively with corresponding carrier concentrations of 8.9 × 1015 cm−3 and 1.5 × 1014 cm−3. Annealing caused opposite changes in the film resistivity between the samples prepared at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells for solar energy conversion is presented, focusing on fundamental and critical aspects like: (a) choice of window layer and absorber layer; (b) drawbacks associated with the device including environmental problems, optical absorption losses and back contact barriers; (c) structural dynamics at CdS-CdTe interface; (d) influence of junction activation process by CdCl2 or HCF2Cl treatment; (e) interface and grain boundary passivation effects; (f
Abstract: Among the armoury of photovoltaic materials, thin film heterojunction photovoltaics continue to be a promising candidate for solar energy conversion delivering a vast scope in terms of device design and fabrication. Their production does not require expensive semiconductor substrates and high temperature device processing, which allows reduced cost per unit area while maintaining reasonable efficiency. In this regard, superstrate CdTe/CdS solar cells are extensively investigated because of their suitable bandgap alignments, cost effective methods of production at large scales and stability against proton/electron irradiation. The conversion efficiencies in the range of 6–20% are achieved by structuring the device by varying the absorber/window layer thickness, junction activation/annealing steps, with more suitable front/back contacts, preparation techniques, doping with foreign ions, etc. This review focuses on fundamental and critical aspects like: (a) choice of CdS window layer and CdTe absorber layer; (b) drawbacks associated with the device including environmental problems, optical absorption losses and back contact barriers; (c) structural dynamics at CdS–CdTe interface; (d) influence of junction activation process by CdCl2 or HCF2Cl treatment; (e) interface and grain boundary passivation effects; (f) device degradation due to impurity diffusion and stress; (g) fabrication with suitable front and back contacts; (h) chemical processes occurring at various interfaces; (i) strategies and modifications developed to improve their efficiency. The complexity involved in understanding the multiple aspects of tuning the solar cell efficiency is reviewed in detail by considering the individual contribution from each component of the device. It is expected that this review article will enrich the materials aspects of CdTe/CdS devices for solar energy conversion and stimulate further innovative research interest on this intriguing topic.
TL;DR: It is proved that certain De Morgan's law hold in soft set theory with respect to different operations on soft sets and the notion of restricted symmetric difference of soft sets is defined and investigated.
Abstract: Soft set theory, proposed by Molodtsov, has been regarded as an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. In this paper, first we prove that certain De Morgan's law hold in soft set theory with respect to different operations on soft sets. Then, we discuss the basic properties of operations on soft sets such as intersection, extended intersection, restricted union and restricted difference. Moreover, we illustrate their interconnections between each other. Also we define the notion of restricted symmetric difference of soft sets and investigate its properties. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the theoretical aspect of operations on soft sets.
TL;DR: In this article, Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe 2 O 4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe 2 O 4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe 2 O 4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV–Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization ( M s ) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe 2 O 4 nanostructures. The M s value of CoFe 2 O 4 -SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe 2 O 4 -FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher M s value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe 2 O 4 -SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.
TL;DR: In this article, aqueous-processed CuSCN hole-transport layers (HTLs) are used to construct planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells.
Abstract: This study reports the development of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole-transport layers (HTLs) processed from aqueous ammonia as a novel alternative to conventional n-alkyl sulfide solvents. Wide bandgap (3.4–3.9 eV) and ultrathin (3–5 nm) layers of CuSCN are formed when the aqueous CuSCN–ammine complex solution is spin-cast in air and annealed at 100 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the high compositional purity of the formed CuSCN layers, while the high-resolution valence band spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl sulfide solutions with the maximum values approaching 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. A further interesting characteristic is the low surface roughness of the resulting CuSCN layers, which in the case of solar cells helps to planarize the indium tin oxide anode. Organic bulk heterojunction and planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells based on aqueous-processed CuSCN HTLs yield power conversion efficiency of 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively. Importantly, aqueous-processed CuSCN-based cells consistently outperform devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate HTLs. This is the first report on CuSCN films and devices processed via an aqueous-based synthetic route that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing and paves the way for further developments.
TL;DR: In this article, transition metal selenides (TMSs) are proposed as potential materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and their properties, preparation methods, and applications are discussed.
Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage devices (lithium ion batteries, sodium ion batteries, magnesium ion batteries, and super capacitors) with high power and energy densities are considered the most promising equipment for large-scale applications of portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. These devices can be realized by exploring nanostructured materials with high capacity, favorable cycling stability, and superior rate capability. Transition metal selenides (TMSs) are potential materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. In this paper, we summarized the nanostructured transition metal selenides and indicated their properties, preparation methods, and applications in electrochemical energy storage systems. We discussed the electronic properties of TMSs and showed that these materials have tunable electronic properties. We enumerated the 10 most-used preparation methods of TMSs as well as their composites with other functional materials. Subsequently, we systematically reviewed their applications in lithium ion batteries, sodium ion batteries, magnesium ion batteries, and super capacitors. Finally, we proposed the challenges and opportunities of their applications in energy storage.