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Saad Mekhilef

Bio: Saad Mekhilef is an academic researcher from University of Malaya. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photovoltaic system & Inverter. The author has an hindex of 78, co-authored 614 publications receiving 24717 citations. Previous affiliations of Saad Mekhilef include Swinburne University of Technology & King Abdulaziz University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to the biodiesel industry, including, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodies, the economical viability and finally the future of the future biodiesel.
Abstract: As the fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is one of the best available resources that have come to the forefront recently. In this paper, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to biodiesel industry. These aspects include, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel, the economical viability and finally the future of biodiesel. The literature reviewed was selective and critical. Highly rated journals in scientific indexes were the preferred choice, although other non-indexed publications, such as Scientific Research and Essays or some internal reports from highly reputed organizations such as International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Information Administration (EIA) and British Petroleum (BP) have also been cited. Based on the overview presented, it is clear that the search for beneficial biodiesel sources should focus on feedstocks that do not compete with food crops, do not lead to land-clearing and provide greenhouse-gas reductions. These feedstocks include non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum , and more recently microalgae and genetically engineered plants such as poplar and switchgrass have emerged to be very promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. It has been found that feedstock alone represents more than 75% of the overall biodiesel production cost. Therefore, selecting the best feedstock is vital to ensure low production cost. It has also been found that the continuity in transesterification process is another choice to minimize the production cost. Biodiesel is currently not economically feasible, and more research and technological development are needed. Thus supporting policies are important to promote biodiesel research and make their prices competitive with other conventional sources of energy. Currently, biodiesel can be more effective if used as a complement to other energy sources.

1,496 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass and comparison between biomass and other fuels.
Abstract: Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40–50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO 2 and NO x emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

1,293 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation and hardware implementation of incremental conductance maximum power point tracking (MPPT) used in solar array power systems with direct control method and results indicate the feasibility and improved functionality of the system.
Abstract: This paper presents simulation and hardware implementation of incremental conductance (IncCond) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) used in solar array power systems with direct control method. The main difference of the proposed system to existing MPPT systems includes elimination of the proportional-integral control loop and investigation of the effect of simplifying the control circuit. Contributions are made in several aspects of the whole system, including converter design, system simulation, controller programming, and experimental setup. The resultant system is capable of tracking MPPs accurately and rapidly without steady-state oscillation, and also, its dynamic performance is satisfactory. The IncCond algorithm is used to track MPPs because it performs precise control under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. MATLAB and Simulink were employed for simulation studies, and Code Composer Studio v3.1 was used to program a TMS320F2812 digital signal processor. The proposed system was developed and tested successfully on a photovoltaic solar panel in the laboratory. Experimental results indicate the feasibility and improved functionality of the system.

974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the photovoltaic (PV) system using a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm.
Abstract: This paper proposes an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the photovoltaic (PV) system using a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The main advantage of the method is the reduction of the steady- state oscillation (to practically zero) once the maximum power point (MPP) is located. Furthermore, the proposed method has the ability to track the MPP for the extreme environmental condition, e.g., large fluctuations of insolation and partial shading condition. The algorithm is simple and can be computed very rapidly; thus, its implementation using a low-cost microcontroller is possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, MATLAB simulations are carried out under very challenging conditions, namely step changes in irradiance, step changes in load, and partial shading of the PV array. Its performance is compared with the conventional Hill Climbing (HC) method. Finally, an experimental rig that comprises of a buck-boost converter fed by a custom-designed solar array simulator is set up to emulate the simulation. The soft- ware development is carried out in the Dspace 1104 environment using a TMS320F240 digital signal processor. The superiority of the proposed method over the HC in terms of tracking speed and steady-state oscillations is highlighted by simulation and experimental results.

851 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study on the world energy consumption released by International Energy Agency (IEA) shows that in 2050, solar array installations will supply around 45% of energy demand in the world.
Abstract: Presently, solar energy conversion is widely used to generate heat and produce electricity A comparative study on the world energy consumption released by International Energy Agency (IEA) shows that in 2050, solar array installations will supply around 45% of energy demand in the world It was found that solar thermal is getting remarkable popularity in industrial applications Solar thermal is an alternative to generate electricity, process chemicals or even space heating It can be used in food, non-metallic, textile, building, chemical or even business related industries On the other hand, solar electricity is wildly applied in telecommunication, agricultural, water desalination and building industry to operate lights, pumps, engines, fans, refrigerators and water heaters It is very important to apply solar energy for a wide variety of applications and provide energy solutions by modifying the energy proportion, improving energy stability, increasing energy sustainability, conversion reduction and hence enhance the system efficiency The present work aimed to study the solar energy systems utilization in industrial applications and looked into the industrial applications which are more compatible to be integrated with solar energy systems

797 citations


Cited by
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Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2015

3,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid and categorize the inverters into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the kind of grid-connected power stage.
Abstract: This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.

3,530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system is provided in this article.

2,790 citations