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Sai Ho Ling

Bio: Sai Ho Ling is an academic researcher from University of Technology, Sydney. The author has contributed to research in topics: Artificial neural network & Time delay neural network. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 181 publications receiving 3458 citations. Previous affiliations of Sai Ho Ling include Hong Kong Polytechnic University & National University of Singapore.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the improved GA performs better than the standard GA based on some benchmark test functions and a neural network with switches introduced to its links is proposed that can learn both the input-output relationships of an application and the network structure using the improvedGA.
Abstract: This paper presents the tuning of the structure and parameters of a neural network using an improved genetic algorithm (GA). It is also shown that the improved GA performs better than the standard GA based on some benchmark test functions. A neural network with switches introduced to its links is proposed. By doing this, the proposed neural network can learn both the input-output relationships of an application and the network structure using the improved GA. The number of hidden nodes is chosen manually by increasing it from a small number until the learning performance in terms of fitness value is good enough. Application examples on sunspot forecasting and associative memory are given to show the merits of the improved GA and the proposed neural network.

760 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2008
TL;DR: A new hybrid particle swarm optimization that incorporates a wavelet-theory-based mutation operation is proposed that significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of convergence speed, solution quality, and solution stability.
Abstract: A new hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) that incorporates a wavelet-theory-based mutation operation is proposed. It applies the wavelet theory to enhance the PSO in exploring the solution space more effectively for a better solution. A suite of benchmark test functions and three industrial applications (solving the load flow problems, modeling the development of fluid dispensing for electronic packaging, and designing a neural-network-based controller) are employed to evaluate the performance and the applicability of the proposed method. Experimental results empirically show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of convergence speed, solution quality, and solution stability.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this study suggest the method could be utilized effectively for a countermeasure device for driver fatigue identification and other adverse event applications.
Abstract: This paper presents a two-class electroencephal-ography-based classification for classifying of driver fatigue (fatigue state versus alert state) from 43 healthy participants. The system uses independent component by entropy rate bound minimization analysis (ERBM-ICA) for the source separation, autoregressive (AR) modeling for the features extraction, and Bayesian neural network for the classification algorithm. The classification results demonstrate a sensitivity of 89.7%, a specificity of 86.8%, and an accuracy of 88.2%. The combination of ERBM-ICA (source separator), AR (feature extractor), and Bayesian neural network (classifier) provides the best outcome with a p -value < 0.05 with the highest value of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC = 0.93) against other methods such as power spectral density as feature extractor (AUC-ROC = 0.81). The results of this study suggest the method could be utilized effectively for a countermeasure device for driver fatigue identification and other adverse event applications.

211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An improved hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based wavelet neural network (WNN) for modeling the development of fluid dispensing for electronic packaging (MFD-EP) is presented, which incorporates a wavelet-theory-based mutation operation.
Abstract: An improved hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based wavelet neural network (WNN) for modeling the development of fluid dispensing for electronic packaging (MFD-EP) is presented in this paper. In modeling the fluid dispensing process, it is important to understand the process behavior as well as determine the optimum operating conditions of the process for a high-yield, low-cost, and robust operation. Modeling the fluid dispensing process is a complex nonlinear problem. This kind of problem is suitable to be solved by applying a neural network. Among the different kinds of neural networks, the WNN is a good choice to solve the problem. In the proposed WNN, the translation parameters are variables depending on the network inputs. Due to the variable translation parameters, the network becomes an adaptive one that provides better performance and increased learning ability than conventional WNNs. An improved hybrid PSO is applied to train the parameters of the proposed WNN. The proposed hybrid PSO incorporates a wavelet-theory-based mutation operation. It applies the wavelet theory to enhance the PSO in more effectively exploring the solution space to reach a better solution. A case study of MFD-EP is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a neural network with a novel neuron model that has two activation functions and exhibits a node-to-node relationship in the hidden layer, and provides better performance than a traditional feedforward neural network, and fewer hidden nodes are needed.
Abstract: This paper presents a neural network with a novel neuron model. In this model, the neuron has two activation functions and exhibits a node-to-node relationship in the hidden layer. This neural network provides better performance than a traditional feedforward neural network, and fewer hidden nodes are needed. The parameters of the proposed neural network are tuned by a genetic algorithm with arithmetic crossover and nonuniform mutation. Some applications are given to show the merits of the proposed neural network.

116 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that it is a high time to provide a critical review of the latest literatures published and also to point out some important future avenues of research on DE.
Abstract: Differential Evolution (DE) is arguably one of the most powerful and versatile evolutionary optimizers for the continuous parameter spaces in recent times. Almost 5 years have passed since the first comprehensive survey article was published on DE by Das and Suganthan in 2011. Several developments have been reported on various aspects of the algorithm in these 5 years and the research on and with DE have now reached an impressive state. Considering the huge progress of research with DE and its applications in diverse domains of science and technology, we find that it is a high time to provide a critical review of the latest literatures published and also to point out some important future avenues of research. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and organize the information on these current developments on DE. Beginning with a comprehensive foundation of the basic DE family of algorithms, we proceed through the recent proposals on parameter adaptation of DE, DE-based single-objective global optimizers, DE adopted for various optimization scenarios including constrained, large-scale, multi-objective, multi-modal and dynamic optimization, hybridization of DE with other optimizers, and also the multi-faceted literature on applications of DE. The paper also presents a dozen of interesting open problems and future research issues on DE.

1,265 citations

Book ChapterDOI
17 Jul 2002

1,123 citations

Book
15 Dec 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a case study of the electricity market in the UK and Australia, showing that electricity prices in both countries are correlated with the number of customers and the amount of electricity consumed.
Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgments. 1 Complex Electricity Markets. 1.1 Liberalization. 1.2 The Marketplace. 1.2.1 Power Pools and Power Exchanges. 1.2.2 Nodal and Zonal Pricing. 1.2.3 Market Structure. 1.2.4 Traded Products. 1.3 Europe. 1.3.1 The England and Wales Electricity Market. 1.3.2 The Nordic Market. 1.3.3 Price Setting at Nord Pool. 1.3.4 Continental Europe 13. 1.4 North America. 1.4.1 PJM Interconnection. 1.4.2 California and the Electricity Crisis. 1.4.3 Alberta and Ontario. 1.5 Australia and New Zealand. 1.6 Summary. 1.7 Further Reading. 2 Stylized Facts of Electricity Loads and Prices. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Price Spikes. 2.2.1 Case Study: The June 1998 Cinergy Price Spike. 2.2.2 When Supply Meets Demand. 2.2.3 What is Causing the Spikes?. 2.2.4 The Definition. 2.3 Seasonality. 2.3.1 Measuring Serial Correlation. 2.3.2 Spectral Analysis and the Periodogram. 2.3.3 Case Study: Seasonal Behavior of Electricity Prices and Loads. 2.4 Seasonal Decomposition. 2.4.1 Differencing. 2.4.2 Mean or Median Week. 2.4.3 Moving Average Technique. 2.4.4 Annual Seasonality and Spectral Decomposition. 2.4.5 Rolling Volatility Technique. 2.4.6 Case Study: Rolling Volatility in Practice. 2.4.7 Wavelet Decomposition. 2.4.8 Case Study: Wavelet Filtering of Nord Pool Hourly System Prices. 2.5 Mean Reversion. 2.5.1 R/S Analysis. 2.5.2 Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. 2.5.3 Periodogram Regression. 2.5.4 Average Wavelet Coefficient. 2.5.5 Case Study: Anti-persistence of Electricity Prices. 2.6 Distributions of Electricity Prices. 2.6.1 Stable Distributions. 2.6.2 Hyperbolic Distributions. 2.6.3 Case Study: Distribution of EEX Spot Prices. 2.6.4 Further Empirical Evidence and Possible Applications. 2.7 Summary. 2.8 Further Reading. 3 Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Loads. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Factors Affecting Load Patterns. 3.2.1 Case Study: Dealing with Missing Values and Outliers. 3.2.2 Time Factors. 3.2.3 Weather Conditions. 3.2.4 Case Study: California Weather vs Load. 3.2.5 Other Factors. 3.3 Overview of Artificial Intelligence-Based Methods. 3.4 Statistical Methods. 3.4.1 Similar-Day Method. 3.4.2 Exponential Smoothing. 3.4.3 Regression Methods. 3.4.4 Autoregressive Model. 3.4.5 Autoregressive Moving Average Model. 3.4.6 ARMA Model Identification. 3.4.7 Case Study: Modeling Daily Loads in California. 3.4.8 Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model. 3.4.9 Time Series Models with Exogenous Variables. 3.4.10 Case Study: Modeling Daily Loads in California with Exogenous Variables. 3.5 Summary. 3.6 Further Reading. 4 Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Prices. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Overview of Modeling Approaches. 4.3 Statistical Methods and Price Forecasting. 4.3.1 Exogenous Factors. 4.3.2 Spike Preprocessing. 4.3.3 How to Assess the Quality of Price Forecasts. 4.3.4 ARMA-type Models. 4.3.5 Time Series Models with Exogenous Variables. 4.3.6 Autoregressive GARCH Models. 4.3.7 Case Study: Forecasting Hourly CalPX Spot Prices with Linear Models. 4.3.8 Case Study: Is Spike Preprocessing Advantageous?. 4.3.9 Regime-Switching Models. 4.3.10 Calibration of Regime-Switching Models. 4.3.11 Case Study: Forecasting Hourly CalPX Spot Prices with Regime-Switching Models. 4.3.12 Interval Forecasts. 4.4 Quantitative Models and Derivatives Valuation. 4.4.1 Jump-Diffusion Models. 4.4.2 Calibration of Jump-Diffusion Models. 4.4.3 Case Study: A Mean-Reverting Jump-Diffusion Model for Nord Pool Spot Prices. 4.4.4 Hybrid Models. 4.4.5 Case Study: Regime-Switching Models for Nord Pool Spot Prices. 4.4.6 Hedging and the Use of Derivatives. 4.4.7 Derivatives Pricing and the Market Price of Risk. 4.4.8 Case Study: Asian-Style Electricity Options. 4.5 Summary. 4.6 Further Reading. Bibliography. Index.

890 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey presented a comprehensive investigation of PSO, including its modifications, extensions, and applications to the following eight fields: electrical and electronic engineering, automation control systems, communication theory, operations research, mechanical engineering, fuel and energy, medicine, chemistry, and biology.
Abstract: Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a heuristic global optimization method, proposed originally by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. It is now one of the most commonly used optimization techniques. This survey presented a comprehensive investigation of PSO. On one hand, we provided advances with PSO, including its modifications (including quantum-behaved PSO, bare-bones PSO, chaotic PSO, and fuzzy PSO), population topology (as fully connected, von Neumann, ring, star, random, etc.), hybridization (with genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, Tabu search, artificial immune system, ant colony algorithm, artificial bee colony, differential evolution, harmonic search, and biogeography-based optimization), extensions (to multiobjective, constrained, discrete, and binary optimization), theoretical analysis (parameter selection and tuning, and convergence analysis), and parallel implementation (in multicore, multiprocessor, GPU, and cloud computing forms). On the other hand, we offered a survey on applications of PSO to the following eight fields: electrical and electronic engineering, automation control systems, communication theory, operations research, mechanical engineering, fuel and energy, medicine, chemistry, and biology. It is hoped that this survey would be beneficial for the researchers studying PSO algorithms.

836 citations