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Samantha F. Ehrlich

Bio: Samantha F. Ehrlich is an academic researcher from Kaiser Permanente. The author has contributed to research in topics: Gestational diabetes & Pregnancy. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 37 publications receiving 1871 citations. Previous affiliations of Samantha F. Ehrlich include University of Tennessee & University of California, Berkeley.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated and compared the incidence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer in patients with and without a diagnosis of diabetes.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE There are limited data on the risk of pulmonary disease in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer in patients with and without a diagnosis of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study using the electronic records of a large health plan in northern California. Age and sex data were available for all cohort members ( n = 1,811,228). Data on confounders were available for a subcohort that responded to surveys ( n = 121,886), among whom Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit. RESULTS Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates and 95% CIs were calculated for members with and without diabetes in the full cohort and the subcohort. No difference was observed for lung cancer, but the incidence of asthma, COPD, fibrosis, and pneumonia was significantly higher in those members with a diagnosis of diabetes. These differences remained significant in regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, BMI, education, alcohol consumption, and outpatient visits (asthma hazard ratio [HR] 1.08 [95% CI 1.03–1.12], COPD HR 1.22 [1.15–1.28], pulmonary fibrosis HR 1.54 [1.31–1.81], and pneumonia HR 1.92 [1.84–1.99]). The risk of pneumonia and COPD increased significantly with increasing A1C. CONCLUSIONS Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of several pulmonary conditions (asthma, COPD, fibrosis, and pneumonia) but not lung cancer. This increased risk may be a consequence of declining lung function in patients with diabetes.

270 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2015-JAMA
TL;DR: Whether pioglitazone use for diabetes is associated with risk of bladder and 10 additional cancers is examined to assess whether they are causal or are due to chance, residual confounding, or reverse causality.
Abstract: Importance Studies suggest pioglitazone use may increase risk of cancers. Objective To examine whether pioglitazone use for diabetes is associated with risk of bladder and 10 additional cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort and nested case-control analyses among persons with diabetes. A bladder cancer cohort followed 193 099 persons aged 40 years or older in 1997-2002 until December 2012; 464 case patients and 464 matched controls were surveyed about additional confounders. A cohort analysis of 10 additional cancers included 236 507 persons aged 40 years or older in 1997-2005 and followed until June 2012. Cohorts were from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Exposures Ever use, duration, cumulative dose, and time since initiation of pioglitazone as time dependent. Main Outcomes and Measures Incident cancer, including bladder, prostate, female breast, lung/bronchus, endometrial, colon, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, kidney/renal pelvis, rectum, and melanoma. Results Among 193 099 persons in the bladder cancer cohort, 34 181 (18%) received pioglitazone (median duration, 2.8 years; range, 0.2-13.2 years) and 1261 had incident bladder cancer. Crude incidences of bladder cancer in pioglitazone users and nonusers were 89.8 and 75.9 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone was not associated with bladder cancer risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89-1.26). Results were similar in case-control analyses (pioglitazone use: 19.6% among case patients and 17.5% among controls; adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.78-1.80). In adjusted analyses, there was no association with 8 of the 10 additional cancers; ever use of pioglitazone was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) and pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.71). Crude incidences of prostate and pancreatic cancer in pioglitazone users vs nonusers were 453.3 vs 449.3 and 81.1 vs 48.4 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. No clear patterns of risk for any cancer were observed for time since initiation, duration, or dose. Conclusions and Relevance Pioglitazone use was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer, although an increased risk, as previously observed, could not be excluded. The increased prostate and pancreatic cancer risks associated with ever use of pioglitazone merit further investigation to assess whether they are causal or are due to chance, residual confounding, or reverse causality.

258 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study suggests that a lifestyle intervention that starts during pregnancy and continues postpartum is feasible and may prevent pregnancy weight retention and help overweight women lose weight.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To pilot, among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the feasibility of a prenatal/postpartum intervention to modify diet and physical activity similar to the Diabetes Prevention Program. The intervention was delivered by telephone, and support for breastfeeding was addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The goal was to help women return to their prepregnancy weight, if it was normal, or achieve a 5% reduction from prepregnancy weight if overweight. Eligible participants were identified shortly after a GDM diagnosis; 83.8% consented to be randomly assigned to intervention or usual medical care (96 and 101 women, respectively). The retention was 85.2% at 12 months postpartum. RESULTS The proportion of women who reached the postpartum weight goal was higher, although not statistically significant, in the intervention condition than among usual care (37.5 vs. 21.4%, absolute difference 16.1%, P = 0.07). The intervention was more effective among women who did not exceed the recommended gestational weight gain (difference in the proportion of women meeting the weight goals: 22.5%, P = 0.04). The intervention condition decreased dietary fat intake more than the usual care (condition difference in the mean change in percent of calories from fat: −3.6%, P = 0.002) and increased breastfeeding, although not significantly (condition difference in proportion: 15.0%, P = 0.09). No differences in postpartum physical activity were observed between conditions. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a lifestyle intervention that starts during pregnancy and continues postpartum is feasible and may prevent pregnancy weight retention and help overweight women lose weight. Strategies to help postpartum women overcome barriers to increasing physical activity are needed.

214 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Clinicians should be aware that the BMI thresholds for increased risk of GDM varies by racial/ethnic group and that the risk is high even at relatively low BMI cutoffs in Asian and Filipina women, and that Asian women may benefit from different prevention strategies in addition to weight management.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To examine whether the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and BMI category varies by racial/ethnic group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cohort of 123,040 women without recognized pregravid diabetes who delivered babies between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of GDM by BMI category and the population-attributable risk (PAR) associated with overweight/obesity. RESULTS Among all racial/ethnic groups, the age-adjusted prevalence of GDM increased with increasing BMI (kg/m2) category. However, Asian and Filipina women had a prevalence of GDM of 9.9 and 8.5%, respectively, at a BMI of 22.0–24.9 kg/m2, whereas in Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and African American women, the prevalence of GDM was >8.0% at a higher BMI, such as 28–30, 34–36, and ≥37 kg/m2, respectively. The estimated PARs suggest that the percentage of GDM that could be prevented if all pregnant women were of normal weight (BMI <25.0 kg/m2) ranging from 65% for African American women to only 23% among Asian women. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware that the BMI thresholds for increased risk of GDM varies by racial/ethnic group and that the risk is high even at relatively low BMI cutoffs in Asian and Filipina women. Asian women may benefit from different prevention strategies in addition to weight management.

204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No clear evidence of an association between use of pioglitazone and risk of the incident cancers examined is found, and longer-term studies are needed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To explore whether treatment with pioglitazone was associated with risk of incident cancer at the 10 most common sites (prostate, female breast, lung/bronchus, endometrial, colon, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], pancreas, kidney/renal pelvis, rectal, and melanoma). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cohort study of 252,467 patients aged ≥40 years from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry was conducted. All prescriptions for diabetes medications were identified by pharmacy records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between risk of incident cancer and ever use, duration, dose, and time since initiation of pioglitazone (modeled as time-dependent variables). RESULTS In models adjusted for age, sex, year of cohort entry, race/ethnicity, income, smoking, glycemic control, diabetes duration, creatinine levels, congestive heart failure, and use of other diabetes medications, the hazard ratio (HR) for each cancer associated with ever use of pioglitazone ranged from 0.7 to 1.3, with all 95% CIs including 1.0. There was a suggestion of an increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.3 [95% CI 0.9–2.0]) and NHL (1.3 [1.0–1.8]) and a decreased risk of kidney/renal pelvis cancers (0.7 [0.4–1.1]) associated with ever use of pioglitazone. These associations were unaltered with increasing dose, duration, or time since first use. CONCLUSIONS We found no clear evidence of an association between use of pioglitazone and risk of the incident cancers examined. Because the maximum duration of follow-up was fewer than 6 years after the initiation of pioglitazone, longer-term studies are needed.

171 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.

9,618 citations

01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The use of intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels for 3.5 years increased mortality and did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events and identify a previously unrecognized harm of intensive glucose lowering in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: Background Epidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels would reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods In this randomized study, 10,251 patients (mean age, 62.2 years) with a median glycated hemoglobin level of 8.1% were assigned to receive intensive therapy (targeting a glycated hemoglobin level below 6.0%) or standard therapy (targeting a level from 7.0 to 7.9%). Of these patients, 38% were women, and 35% had had a previous cardiovascular event. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The finding of higher mortality in the intensive-therapy group led to a discontinuation of intensive therapy after a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up. Results At 1 year, stable median glycated hemoglobin levels of 6.4% and 7.5% were achieved in the intensive-therapy group and the standard-therapy group, respectively. During follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 352 patients in the intensive-therapy group, as compared with 371 in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.16). At the same time, 257 patients in the intensive-therapy group died, as compared with 203 patients in the standardtherapy group (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46; P = 0.04). Hypoglycemia requiring assistance and weight gain of more than 10 kg were more frequent in the intensive-therapy group (P<0.001). Conclusions As compared with standard therapy, the use of intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels for 3.5 years increased mortality and did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events. These findings identify a previously unrecognized harm of intensive glucose lowering in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620.)

4,728 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A panel to update the prior position statements on the management of type 2 diabetes in adults includes additional focus on lifestyle management and diabetes self-management education and support and efforts targeting weight loss.
Abstract: The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have briefly updated their 2018 recommendations on management of hyperglycemia, based on important research findings from large cardiovascular outcomes trials published in 2019. Important changes include: 1) the decision to treat high-risk individuals with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), cardiovascular death, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression should be considered independently of baseline HbA1c or individualized HbA1c target; 2) GLP-1 receptor agonists can also be considered in patients with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) but with the presence of specific indicators of high risk; and 3) SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, particularly those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, to reduce hHF, MACE, and CVD death, as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 to ≤60 mL min-1 [1.73 m]-2 or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, particularly >300 mg/g) to prevent the progression of CKD, hHF, MACE, and cardiovascular death.

2,592 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes) or chemical-induced diabetes (such as in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation)
Abstract: 1. Type 1 diabetes (due to b-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency) 2. Type 2 diabetes (due to a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance) 3. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes) 4. Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., monogenic diabetes syndromes (such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY]), diseases of the exocrine pancreas (such as cystic fibrosis), and drugor chemical-induced diabetes (such as in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation)

2,339 citations