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Samukelisiwe P. Ngcobo

Bio: Samukelisiwe P. Ngcobo is an academic researcher from University of KwaZulu-Natal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Habitat & Ecology. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 4 publications receiving 8 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine trends and presented a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010).
Abstract: Urbanisation is rapidly transforming natural landscapes with consequences for biodiversity. Little is documented on the response of African wildlife to urbanisation. We reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to determine trends. Connected habitat mosaics of natural and anthropogenic green spaces are critical for urban wildlife persistence. We present a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010), which documents this sequence for vertebrate species persistence, based on the perspective of our research. Species in suburbia exhibit an initial phase where behavioural and ecological flexibility, life-history traits and phenotypic plasticity either contribute to their success, or they stay at low numbers. Where successful, the next phase is a rapid increase in populations and distribution; anthropogenic food resources and alternate breeding sites are effectively exploited. The modified third phase either continues to spread, plateau or decline.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of the home ranges of 15 radio-tagged Cape porcupines on farmlands, peri-urban and suburban areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa suggests that cape porcupine ranging ecology is influenced by food resource distribution and availability in various land-use types.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined the relationship between pre-infection plasma cytokine expression and the rate of HIV disease progression in South African women who seroconverted during the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel trial.
Abstract: Previous studies have highlighted the role of pre-infection systemic inflammation on HIV acquisition risk, but the extent to which it predicts disease progression outcomes is less studied. Here we examined the relationship between pre-infection plasma cytokine expression and the rate of HIV disease progression in South African women who seroconverted during the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel trial. Bio-Plex 200 system was used to measure the expression of 47 cytokines/chemokines in 69 seroconvertors from the CAPRISA 004 trial. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to measure associations between cytokine expression and CD4 decline prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation. Linear regression models were used to assess whether pre-infection cytokine expression were predictors of disease progression outcomes including peak and set-point viral load and CD4:CD8 ratio at less and greater than180 days post infection. Several cytokines were associated with increased peak HIV viral load (including IL-16, SCGFβ, MCP-3, IL-12p40, SCF, IFNα2 and IL-2). The strongest association with peak viral load was observed for SCGFβ, which was also inversely associated with lowest CD4:CD8 ratio < 180 days post infection and faster CD4 decline below 500 cells/µl (adjusted HR 4.537, 95% CI 1.475-13.954; p = 0.008) in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, study site, contraception, baseline HSV-2 status and trial arm allocation. Our results show that pre-infection systemic immune responses could play a role in HIV disease progression, especially in the early stages of infection.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of Cape porcupines' habitat selection in a farmland-suburban context in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa showed a variation in their habitat selection at the two spatial scales, addressing possible human-porcupine conflict and management recommendations for cultivated farmlands and suburban gardens.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used camera-trap surveys and microhabitat-scale covariates to assess the habitat requirements, probability of occupancy and detection of two terrestrial forest specialist species, the Orange Ground-thrushGeokichla gurneyi and the Lemon DoveAplopelia larvataduring the breeding and non-breeding seasons of 2018-2019 in selected Southern Mistbelt Forests of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Abstract: Establishing the specific habitat requirements of forest specialists in fragmented natural habitats is vital for their conservation. We used camera-trap surveys and microhabitat-scale covariates to assess the habitat requirements, probability of occupancy and detection of two terrestrial forest specialist species, the Orange Ground-thrushGeokichla gurneyiand the Lemon DoveAplopelia larvataduring the breeding and non-breeding seasons of 2018–2019 in selected Southern Mistbelt Forests of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A series of camera-trap surveys over 21 days were conducted in conjunction with surveys of microhabitat structural covariates. During the wet season, percentage of leaf litter cover, short grass cover, short herb cover, tall herb cover and saplings 0–2 m, stem density of trees 6–10 m and trees 16–20 m were significant structural covariates for influencing Lemon Dove occupancy. In the dry season, stem density of 2–5 m and 10–15 m trees, percentage tall herb cover, short herb cover and 0–2 m saplings were significant covariates influencing Lemon Dove occupancy. Stem density of trees 2–5 m and 11–15 m, percentage of short grass cover and short herb cover were important site covariates influencing Orange Ground-thrush occupancy in the wet season. Our study highlighted the importance of a diverse habitat structure for both forest species. A high density of tall/mature trees was an essential microhabitat covariate, particularly for sufficient cover and food for these ground-dwelling birds. Avian forest specialists play a vital role in providing ecosystem services perpetuating forest habitat functioning. Conservation of the natural heterogeneity of their habitat is integral to management plans to prevent the decline of such species.

3 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
30 Apr 2021-Ostrich
TL;DR: In Africa, increasing human populations and anthropogenic land-use change are generally affecting diversity negatively as mentioned in this paper, but especially in Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, a large number of people are migrating to the region.
Abstract: Globally, but especially in Africa, increasing human populations and anthropogenic land-use change are generally affecting diversity negatively. Urban environments in southern Africa typically comp...

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine trends and presented a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010).
Abstract: Urbanisation is rapidly transforming natural landscapes with consequences for biodiversity. Little is documented on the response of African wildlife to urbanisation. We reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to determine trends. Connected habitat mosaics of natural and anthropogenic green spaces are critical for urban wildlife persistence. We present a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010), which documents this sequence for vertebrate species persistence, based on the perspective of our research. Species in suburbia exhibit an initial phase where behavioural and ecological flexibility, life-history traits and phenotypic plasticity either contribute to their success, or they stay at low numbers. Where successful, the next phase is a rapid increase in populations and distribution; anthropogenic food resources and alternate breeding sites are effectively exploited. The modified third phase either continues to spread, plateau or decline.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Species specific variability in home range size of the study species emphasises this family’s adaptability to their surrounding environment in a changing natural habitat and farmland mosaic landscape.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors compared 2D and 3D antiretroviral therapy and found no difference in the rates of CD4/CD8 normalization at 48 weeks.
Abstract: Background The initiation of antiretroviral treatment based on a 2-drug regimen (2DR) with dolutegravir plus lamivudine has demonstrated non-inferior efficacy than dolutegravir-based three-drug regimens (3DR). We aimed to assess whether the treatment initiation with this 2DR has a different impact on the CD4/CD8 ratio recovery than INSTI-based 3DR. Methods We emulated a target trial using observational data from the Spanish HIV Research Network cohort (CoRIS). The outcomes of interest were the normalization of the CD4/CD8 ratio at 48 weeks using three different cutoffs: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. We matched each participant who started 2DR with up to four participants who received 3DR. Subsequently, we fitted generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and used the Kaplan–Meier method for survival curves. Results We included 485, 805, and 924 participants for cutoffs of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, respectively. At 48 weeks, 45% of participants achieved a CD4/CD8 ratio >0.5, 15% achieved a ratio >1.0, and 6% achieved a ratio >1.5. GEE models yielded a similar risk of reaching a CD4/CD8 ratio >0.5 (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.67 - 1.50), CD4/CD8 >1.0 (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.68 - 1.58), and CD4/CD8 >1.5 (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.48 - 1.54) between both treatment strategies. There were no differences between 2DR and 3DR in the incidence ratio of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cut-offs. Conclusions In this large cohort study in people with HIV, ART initiation with dolutegravir plus lamivudine vs. dolutegravir or bictegravir-based triple antiretroviral therapy showed no difference in the rates of CD4/CD8 normalization at 48 weeks.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide the first comprehensive development and management guidelines for eco-estates, reviewed and assessed research into the effects of eco-estate development on environmental functionality and connectivity using case studies from coastal KwaZulu-Natal.

4 citations